Statistical information Sri Lanka 1995Sri%20Lanka

Map of Sri Lanka | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Sri Lanka in the World
Sri Lanka in the World

Sri Lanka - Introduction 1995
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Background: Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century the island was ceded to the British in 1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in an ethnic war that continues to fester.

Sri Lanka - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAsia

Total area total: 65,610 km²
Land: 64,740 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March; southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior


Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 16%
Permanent crops: 17%
Meadows and pastures: 7%
Forest and woodland: 37%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,600 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

Sri Lanka - People 1995
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Population: 18,342,660 (July 1995 est.)
Note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of late 1992, nearly 115,000 were housed in refugee camps in south India, another 95,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought political asylum in the West
Growth rate: 1.15% (1995 est.)

Noun: Sri Lankan(s)
Adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%

Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%
Note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken by about 10% of the population

Religions: Buddhist 69%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 29% (female 2,597,969; male 2,713,696)
15-64 years: 65% (female 6,042,228; male 5,902,343)
65 years and over: 6% (female 547,715; male 538,709) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.15% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 18.13 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.84 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff
Current issues natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 21.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 72.14 years
Male: 69.58 years
Female: 74.82 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 88%
Male: 93%
Female: 84%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Sri Lanka - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Conventional short form: Sri Lanka
Former: Ceylon

Government type: republic

Capital: Colombo

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

Constitution: adopted 16 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Sirimavo BANDARANAIKE is the Prime Minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered to be both the chief of state and the head of the government, this is in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist; election last held 9 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 2000); results - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (People's Alliance) 62%, Srima DISSANAYAKE (United National Party) 37%, other 1%
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 16 August 1994 (next to be held by August 2000); results - PA 49.0%, UNP 44.0%, SLMC 1.8%, TULF 1.7%, SLPF 1.1%, EPDP 0.3%, UPF 0.3%, PLOTE 0.1%, other 1.7%; seats - (225 total) PA 105, UNP 94, EPDP 9, SLMC 7, TULF 5, PLOTE 3, SLPF 1, UPF 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders


Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jayantha DHANAPALA
In the us chancery: 2,148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,008
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 483-4,025 through 4,028
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 232-7,181
In the us consulates: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Teresita C. SCHAFFER
From the us embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
From the us telephone: [94] (1) 448,007
From the us FAX: [94] (1) 437,345

Flag descriptionflag of Sri%20Lanka: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Sri Lanka - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Industry - dominated by the fast-growing apparel industry - has surpassed agriculture as the main source of export earnings and accounts for over 16% of GDP. The economy has been plagued by high rates of unemployment since the late 1970s. Economic growth, which has been depressed by ethnic unrest, accelerated in 1991-94 as domestic conditions began to improve and conditions for foreign investment brightened. Currently, however, the new government's emphasis on populist measures has clouded Sri Lanka's economic prospects.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for one-fourth of GDP; field crops - rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops - tea, rubber, coconuts; animal products - milk, eggs, hides, meat; not self-sufficient in rice production

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (1993 est.), accounts for 16% of GDP

Labor force: 6.6 million
By occupation agriculture: 45.9%
By occupation mining and manufacturing: 13.3%
By occupation tradeandtransport: 12.4%
By occupation servicesandother: 28.4% (1985est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 13.6% (1993 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $2.3 billion
Expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1993)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodoties: garments and textiles, teas, diamonds, other gems, petroleum products, rubber products, other agricultural products, marine products, graphite
Partners: US 35.2%, Germany, UK, Belgium-Luxembourg, Japan, Netherlands, France (1993)

Imports: $4 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
Commodoties: textiles and textile materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, petroleum, building materials
Partners: Japan, India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7.2 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRes) per US$1 - 50.115 (January 1995), 49.415 (1994), 48.322 (1993), 43.830 (1992), 41.372 (1991), 40.063 (1990)

Sri Lanka - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.2 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 168 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Sri Lanka - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 114,000 telephones (1982); very inadequate domestic service, good international service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: submarine cables extend to Indonesia and Djibouti; 2 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Sri Lanka - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $412 million, 3.6% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Sri Lanka - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 7

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 1


Pipelines: crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)



Waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

Merchant marine
Total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,115 GRT/453,609 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 12, container 1, oil tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 8

Ports and terminals

Sri Lanka - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

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