Statistical information Sweden 1995Sweden

Map of Sweden | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Sweden - Introduction 1995
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Background: Having long lost its military prowess of the 17th century, Sweden has evolved into a prosperous and peaceful constitutional monarchy with a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements. As the 20th century comes to an end, this long successful formula is being undermined by high unemployment; the rising cost of a "cradle to the grave" welfare state; the decline of Sweden's competitive position in world markets; and indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe.


Sweden - Geography 1995
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Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceEurope

Area
Total area total: 449,964 km²
Land: 410,928 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: total 2,205 km, Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 2%
Forest and woodland: 64%
Other: 27%

Irrigated land: 1,120 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas


Sweden - People 1995
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Population: 8,821,759 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Swede(s)
Adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups: white, Lapp (Sami), foreign born or first-generation immigrants 12% (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Languages: Swedish
Note: small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak native languages

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5% (1987)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 19% (female 810,859; male 854,553)
15-64 years: 64% (female 2,761,060; male 2,856,012)
65 years and over: 17% (female 887,597; male 651,678) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.19 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 10.84 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.27 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: acid rain damaging soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Current issues natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Current issues international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.43 years
Male: 75.64 years
Female: 81.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.97 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
Total population: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Sweden - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
Conventional short form: Sweden
Local long form: Konungariket Sverige
Local short form: Sverige

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural; Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan, Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 June 1809 (constitutional monarchy established)

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July 1977)
Head of government: Prime Minister Ingvar CARLSSON (since 6 October 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Mona SAHLIN (since 6 October 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament Riksdag: elections last held 18 September 1994 (next to be held NA September 1998); results - Social Democrats 45.4%, Moderate Party (Conservatives) 22.3%, Center Party 7.7%, Liberals 7.2%, Left Party 6.2%, Greens 5.8%, Christian Democrats 4.1%, New Democracy Party 1.2%; seats - (349 total) Social Democrats 162, Moderate Party (Conservatives) 80, Center Party 27, Liberals 26, Left Party 22, Greens 18, Christian Democrats 14; note - the New Democracy Party did not receive a seat because parties require a minimum of 4.8% of votes for a seat in parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 8, G- 9, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNOMOZ, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Carl Henrik Sihver LILJEGREN
In the us chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 467-2,600
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 467-2,699
In the us consulates general: Los Angeles and New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas L. SIEBERT
From the us embassy: Strandvagen 101, S-115 89 Stockholm
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [46] (8) 783 53 00
From the us FAX: [46] (8) 661 19 64

Flag descriptionflag of Sweden: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Sweden - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. In 1990, agriculture accounted for only 1.2% of GDP and 1.9% of the jobs, Sweden being about 50% sufficient in most products. In the last few years, however, this extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by inflation, growing unemployment, and a gradual loss of competitiveness in international markets. Although Prime Minister BILDT's center-right minority coalition had hoped to charge ahead with free-market-oriented reforms, a skyrocketing budget deficit - about 14% of GDP in FY93/94 projections - and record unemployment have forestalled many of the plans. Unemployment in 1994 is estimated at around 9% with another 5% in job training. Continued heavy foreign exchange speculation forced the government to cooperate in late 1992 with the opposition Social Democrats on two crisis packages - one a severe austerity pact and the other a program to spur industrial competitiveness - which basically set economic policy through 1997. In November 1992, Sweden broke its tie to the EC's ECU, and the krona has since depreciated about 25% against the dollar. The boost in export competitiveness from the depreciation helped lift Sweden out of its 3-year recession. To curb the budget deficit and bolster confidence in the economy, the new Social Democratic government is proposing cuts in welfare benefits, subsidies, defense, and foreign aid. Sweden has harmonized its economic policies with those of the EU, which it joined at the start of 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes; Sweden is about 50% self-sufficient in most products

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (1994)

Labor force: 4.552 million (84% unionized,1992)
By occupation community socialandpersonalservices: 38.3%
By occupation mining and manufacturing: 21.2%
By occupation commerce hotels andrestaurants: 14.1%
By occupation banking insurance: 9.0%
By occupation communications: 7.2%
By occupation construction: 7.0%
By occupation agriculture fishing andforestry: 3.2% (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $47.9 billion
Expenditures: $70.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY93/94)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $59.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodoties: machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
Partners: EC 55.8% (Germany 15%, UK 9.7%, Denmark 7.2%, France 5.8%), EFTA 17.4% (Norway 8.4%, Finland 5.1%), US 8.2%, Central and Eastern Europe 2.5% (1992)

Imports: $49.6 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
Commodoties: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
Partners: EC 53.6% (Germany 17.9%, UK 6.3%, Denmark 7.5%, France 4.9%), EFTA (Norway 6.6%, Finland 6%), US 8.4%, Central and Eastern Europe 3% (1992)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 7.4675 (January 1995), 7.7160 (1994), 7.7834 (1993), 5.8238 (1992), 6.0475 (1991) 5.9188 (1990)


Sweden - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 141 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 14,891 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Sweden - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 8,200,000 telephones; excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
Local: NA
Intercity: coaxial and multiconductor cable carry most voice traffic; parallel microwave network carries TV, radio, and some additional telephone channels
International: 5 submarine coaxial cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Sweden - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $5.4 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Sweden - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 253
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 8
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 84
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 26
With paved runways under 914 m: 129
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 8
15-24 to 2437 m: 84
914 to 1523 m: 26
Under 914 m: 129

Airports with unpaved runways
914 to 1523 m: 4

Heliports

Pipelines: natural gas 84 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Merchant marine
Total: 157 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,872,350 GRT/2,075,722 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 24, chemical tanker 25, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, oil tanker 31, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 37, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 12

Ports and terminals


Sweden - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics shipped via the CIS and Baltic states for the European market


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