Statistical information Tonga 1995Tonga

Map of Tonga | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Tonga in the World
Tonga in the World


Tonga - Introduction 1995
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Background: Deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

Tonga - Geography 1995
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Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceOceania

Total area total: 748 km²
Land: 718 km²
Comparative: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base


Natural resources: fish, fertile soil
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 25%
Permanent crops: 55%
Meadows and pastures: 6%
Forest and woodland: 12%
Other: 2%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Note: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

Tonga - People 1995
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Population: 105,600 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 0.78% (1995 est.)

Noun: Tongan(s)
Adjective: Tongan

Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans about 300

Languages: Tongan, English

Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 24.37 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.75 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.87 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Current issues natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou
Current issues international agreements: party to - Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 20.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.16 years
Male: 65.8 years
Female: 70.62 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.56 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write simple message in Tongan or English (1976)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Tonga - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
Conventional short form: Tonga
Former: Friendly Islands

Government type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nuku'alofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 June 1970 (emancipation from UK protectorate)

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
Head of government: Prime Minister Baron VAEA (since 22 August 1991); Deputy Prime Minister S. Langi KAVALIKU (since 22 August 1991)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the king
Privy Council: consists of the king and the cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral; consists of twelve cabinet ministers sitting ex-officio, nine nobles selected by the country's thirty-three nobles, and nine people's representatives elected by the populace
Legislative Assembly Fale Alea: elections last held 3-4 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1996); results - percent of vote NA; seats - (30 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, SPARTECA, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: Ambassador Sione KITE, resides in London
In the us consulates general: San Francisco
From the us: the US has no offices in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga

Flag descriptionflag of Tonga: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Tonga - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about 70% of the labor force and contributes 40% to GDP. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the country also remains dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to offset its trade deficit. The economy continued to grow in 1993-94 largely because of a rise in squash exports, increased aid flows, and several large construction projects. The government is now turning its attention to further development of the private sector and the reduction of the budget deficit.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 40% of GDP; dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production; vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Industries: tourism, fishing

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (FY91/92; accounts for 11% of GDP

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 70%
By occupation mining: 600 people engaged in mining
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $36.4 million
Expenditures: $68.1 million, including capital expenditures of $33.2 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $11.3 million (f.o.b., FY92/93)
Commodoties: squash, vanilla, fish, root crops, coconut oil
Partners: Japan 34%, US 17%, Australia 13%, NZ 13% (FY90/91)

Imports: $56 million (c.i.f., FY92/93)
Commodoties: food products, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, fuels, chemicals
Partners: NZ 33%, Australia 22%, US 8%, Japan 8% (FY90/91)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $47.5 million (FY90/91)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1 - 1.2653 (January 1995), 1.3202 (1994), 1.3841 (1993), 1.3471 (1992), 1.2961 (1991), 1.2800 (1990)

Tonga - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 30 million kWh
Consumption per capita: 231 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Tonga - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 3,529 telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Tonga - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Tonga - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with paved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
Under 914 m: 2

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2






Merchant marine
Total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,440 GRT/8,984 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1

Ports and terminals

Tonga - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Austrian Airlines

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