Statistical information Uzbekistan 1995Uzbekistan

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Uzbekistan - Introduction 1995
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Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1925. During the Soviet era intensive production of 'white gold' (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militant groups from Tajikistan and Afghanistan a non-convertible currency and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.


Uzbekistan - Geography 1995
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Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceCommonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States

Area
Total area total: 447,400 km²
Land: 425,400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: total 6,221 km, Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline: 0 km
Note: Uzbekistan borders the Aral Sea (420 km)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya and Sirdaryo Rivers; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 47%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 42%

Irrigated land: 41,550 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked


Uzbekistan - People 1995
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Population: 23,089,261 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.08% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Uzbek(s)
Adjective: Uzbek

Ethnic groups: Uzbek 71.4%, Russian 8.3%, Tajik 4.7%, Kazakh 4.1%, Tatar 2.4%, Karakalpak 2.1%, other 7%

Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 40% (female 4,553,432; male 4,670,496)
15-64 years: 55% (female 6,400,578; male 6,384,862)
65 years and over: 5% (female 656,933; male 422,960) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.08% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 29.45 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 6.44 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.23 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salinization; soil contamination from agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Current issues natural hazards: NA
Current issues international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 52 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.79 years
Male: 65.5 years
Female: 72.24 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.67 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989)
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Uzbekistan - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
Conventional short form: Uzbekistan
Local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
Local short form: none
Former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: republic

Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent)

Administrative divisions: 12 wiloyatlar (singular - wiloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahri); Andijon Wiloyati, Bukhoro Wiloyati, Jizzakh Wiloyati, Farghona Wiloyati, Qoraqalpoghiston* (Nukus), Qashqadaryo Wiloyati (Qarshi), Khorazm Wiloyati (Urganch), Namangan Wiloyati, Nawoiy Wiloyati, Samarqand Wiloyati, Sirdaryo Wiloyati (Guliston), Surkhondaryo Wiloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Wiloyati
Note: an administrative division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Islam KARIMOV (since NA March 1990); election last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Islam KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2%; note - a 26 March 1995 referendum extended KARIMOV's term until 2000 (99.6% approval)
Head of government: Prime Minister Abdulhashim MUTALOV (since 13 January 1992), First Deputy Prime Minister Ismail DJURABEKOV (since NA); Deputy Prime Ministers Viktor CHIZHEN, Bakhtiyar HAMIDOV, Kayim KHAKKULOV, Yuriy PAYGIN, Saidmukhtar SAIDKASYMOV, Utkur SULTANOV, Mirabror USMANOV, Murat SHARIFKHOJAYEV (since NA)
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers; appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
Supreme Council: elections last held 25 December 1994 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (250 total) People's Democratic Party 207, Fatherland Progress Party 12, other 31; note - final runoffs were held 22 January 1995; seating was as follows:People's Democratic Party 69, Fatherland Progress Party 14, Social Democratic Party 47, local government 120

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Fatikh TESHABAYEV
In the us chancery: (temporary) Suites 619 and 623, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20,005
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 638-4,266, 4,267
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 638-4,268
In the us consulates general: New York
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Henry L. CLARKE
From the us embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent
From the us mailing address: use embassy street address
From the us telephone: [7] (3,712) 77-14-07, 77-10-81
From the us FAX: [7] (3,712) 77-69-53

Flag descriptionflag of Uzbekistan: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Uzbekistan - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 10% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. It is one of the poorest states of the former USSR with 60% of its population living in overpopulated rural communities. Nevertheless, Uzbekistan is the world's third largest cotton exporter, a major producer of gold and natural gas, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Since independence, the government has sought to prop up the Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on prices and production. Such policies have buffered the economy from the sharp declines in output and high inflation experienced by many other former Soviet republics. They had become increasingly unsustainable, however, as inflation moves along at 14% per month and as Russia has forced the Uzbek government to introduce its own currency. Faced with mounting economic problems, the government has begun to move on a reform agenda and cooperate with international financial institutions, announced an acceleration of privatization, and stepped up efforts to attract foreign investors. Nevertheless, the regime is likely to find it difficult to sustain its drive for economic reform.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain, livestock

Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 8.234 million
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 43%
By occupation industry and construction: 22%
By occupation other: 35% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 0.3% includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers (December 1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $N/A
Expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $943.7 million to outside the FSU countries (1994)
Commodoties: cotton, gold, natural gas, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products
Partners: Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe, US

Imports: $1.15 billion from outside the FSU countries (1994)
Commodoties: grain, machinery and parts, consumer durables, other foods
Partners: principally other FSU countries, Czech Republic

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: soms per US$1 - 25 (yearend 1994)


Uzbekistan - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 47.5 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 2,130 kWh (1994)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Uzbekistan - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,458,000 telephones; 63 telephones/1000 persons (1995); poorly developed
Local: NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent
Intercity: NA
International: linked by landline or microwave with CIS member states and by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; new INTELSAT links to Tokyo and Ankara give Uzbekistan international access independent of Russian facilities; Orbita and INTELSAT earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Uzbekistan - Military 1995
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Military expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Uzbekistan - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 261
With paved runways over 3047 m: 6
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 14
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 8
With paved runways under 914 m: 5
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 7
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 216

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 6
2438 to 3047 m: 14
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 8
Under 914 m: 5

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2438 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 7
Under 914 m: 216

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Uzbekistan - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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