Statistical information Venezuela 1995Venezuela

Map of Venezuela | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Venezuela in the World

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Venezuela - Introduction 1995
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Background: Venezuela was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Ecuador). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Current concerns include: drug-related conflicts along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations which are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.


Venezuela - Geography 1995
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Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceSouth America

Area
Total area total: 912,050 km²
Land: 882,050 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: total 4,993 km, Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 15 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos; Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 1%
Meadows and pastures: 20%
Forest and woodland: 39%
Other: 37%

Irrigated land: 2,640 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America


Venezuela - People 1995
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Population: 21,004,773 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Venezuelan(s)
Adjective: Venezuelan

Ethnic groups: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Amerindian 2%

Languages: Spanish (official), native dialects spoken by about 200,000 Amerindians in the remote interior

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 35% (female 3,650,705; male 3,795,032)
15-64 years: 60% (female 6,350,466; male 6,313,887)
65 years and over: 5% (female 486,020; male 408,663) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 25.11 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 4.57 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.46 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast
Current issues natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 26.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.31 years
Male: 70.48 years
Female: 76.29 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.97 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Total population: 90%
Male: 91%
Female: 89%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Venezuela - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Venezuela
Conventional short form: Venezuela
Local long form: Republica de Venezuela
Local short form: Venezuela

Government type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 21 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 territory* (territorio), 1 federal district** (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency*** (dependencia federal); Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia
Note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Dependent areas

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Rafael CALDERA Rodriguez (since 2 February 1994); election last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1998); results - Rafael CALDERA (National Convergence) 30.45%, Claudio FERMIN (AD) 23.59%, Oswaldo ALVAREZ PAZ (COPEI) 22.72%, Andres VELASQUEZ (Causa R) 21.94%, other 1.3%
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la Republica)
Senate Senado: elections last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (53 total) AD 18, COPEI 15, Causa R 9, MAS 5, National Convergence 6; note - 3 former presidents (2 from AD, 1 from COPEI) hold lifetime senate seats
Chamber of Deputies Camara de Diputados: elections last held 5 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1998); results - AD 27.9%, COPEI 26.9%, MAS 12.4%, National Convergence 12.9%, Causa R 19.9%; seats - (203 total) AD 55, COPEI 53, MAS 24, National Convergence 26, Causa R 40, other 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) Roberto YEPES, President

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AG, BCIE, CARICOM (observer), CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, MINURSO, NAM, OAS, ONUSAL, OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Luis ECHEVERRIA
In the us chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20,007
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 342-2,214
In the us consulates general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW
From the us embassy: Avenida Francisco de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 62,291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34,037
From the us telephone: [58] (2) 285-2,222, 3,111
From the us FAX: [58] (2) 285-0366

Flag descriptionflag of Venezuela: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Venezuela - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Despite efforts to broaden the base of the economy, petroleum continues to play a dominant role. In 1994, as GDP declined 3.3%, the oil sector - which accounts for 24% of the total - enjoyed a 6% expansion, provided 45% of the budget revenues, and generated 70% of the export earnings. President CALDERA, who assumed office in February 1994, has used an interventionist, reactive approach to managing the economy, instituting price and foreign exchange controls in mid-year to slow inflation and stop the loss of foreign exchange reserves. The government claims it will remove these controls once inflationary pressures abate, but the $8 billion bailout of the banking sector in 1994 has made it difficult for the government to make good on its promise. Economic controls, coupled with political uncertainty driven by recurrent coup rumors, continue to deter foreign and domestic investment; private forecasters see the recession persisting for a third year in 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: -3.3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 6% of GDP; products - corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Industrial production growth rate: -1.4% (1993 est.), accounts for 41% of GDP

Labor force: 7.6 million
By occupation services: 63%
By occupation industry: 25%
By occupation agriculture: 12% (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 9% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $10.3 billion
Expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $103 million (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $15.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: petroleum 72%, bauxite and aluminum, steel, chemicals, agricultural products, basic manufactures
Partners: US and Puerto Rico 55%, Japan, Netherlands, Italy

Imports: $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials
Partners: US 40%, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Canada

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $40.1 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 169.570 (January 1995), 148.503 (1994), 90.826 (1993), 68.38 (1992), 56.82 (1991), 46.90 (1990)


Venezuela - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 72 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 3,311 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Venezuela - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,440,000 telephones; modern and expanding
Local: NA
Intercity: 3 domestic satellite earth stations
International: 3 submarine coaxial cables; 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Venezuela - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.95 billion, 4% of GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Venezuela - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 431
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 34
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 65
With paved runways under 914 m: 191
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 12
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 114

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 34
914 to 1523 m: 65
Under 914 m: 191

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 114

Heliports

Pipelines: crude oil 6,370 km; petroleum products 480 km; natural gas 4,010 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept oceangoing vessels

Merchant marine
Total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 686,811 GRT/1,110,829 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 11, combination bulk 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 15, passenger-cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4, short-sea passenger 1

Ports and terminals


Venezuela - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo River; maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, opium, and coca leaf for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities of cocaine and heroin transit the country from Colombia; important money-laundering hub


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