Statistical information Zimbabwe 1995Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Zimbabwe in the World
Zimbabwe in the World

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Zimbabwe - Introduction 1995
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Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE the nation's first prime minister has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.


Zimbabwe - Geography 1995
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Location: Southern Africa, northeast of Botswana

Geographic coordinates

Map referenceAfrica

Area
Total area total: 390,580 km²
Land: 386,670 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries: total 3,066 km, Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none; landlocked

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld; mountains in east

Elevation

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7.25%
Permanent crops: 0.25% (coffee is a permanent crop)
Meadows and pastures: 12.5%
Forest and woodland: 49%
Other: 31%

Irrigated land: 2,250 km² (1993 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: landlocked


Zimbabwe - People 1995
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Population: 11,139,961 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate: 1.78% (1995 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Zimbabwean(s)
Adjective: Zimbabwean

Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), white 1%, mixed and Asian 1%

Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele

Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 47% (female 2,588,193; male 2,617,485)
15-64 years: 51% (female 2,915,697; male 2,723,511)
65 years and over: 2% (female 151,635; male 143,440) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.78% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 36.35 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 18.54 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)
Note: following the settlement of hostilities in Mozambique in 1992, refugees from the fighting there began to return to their homes; this process continues at a lesser rate in 1995; there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid employment

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching
Current issues natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Current issues international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 72.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 41.35 years
Male: 39.73 years
Female: 43.01 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Total population: 78%
Male: 84%
Female: 72%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Zimbabwe - Government 1995
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
Conventional short form: Zimbabwe
Former: Southern Rhodesia

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo (Victoria), Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands

Dependent areas

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice President Joshua M. NKOMO (since 6 August 1990); election last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - Robert MUGABE 78.3%, Edgar TEKERE 21.7%
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president; responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
Parliament: elections last held 8-9 April 1995 (next to be held NA March 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (150 total, 120 elected) ZANU-PF 118, ZANU-S 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMUR, UNOSOM, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation
In the us chief of mission: Ambassador Amos Bernard Muvengwa MIDZI
In the us chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20,009
In the us telephone: [1] (202) 332-7,100
In the us FAX: [1] (202) 483-9,326
From the us chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny CARSON
From the us embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
From the us mailing address: P. O. Box 3,340, Harare
From the us telephone: [263] (4) 794,521
From the us FAX: [263] (4) 796,488

Flag descriptionflag of Zimbabwe: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Zimbabwe - Economy 1995
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Economy overview: Agriculture employs three-fourths of the labor force and supplies almost 40% of exports. The manufacturing sector, based on agriculture and mining, produces a variety of goods and contributes 35% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both GDP and employment, but minerals and metals account for about 40% of exports. Severe drought caused GDP to drop 8% in 1992, with growth rebounding to 2% in 1993 and 3.5% in 1994. Despite the lingering effects of the drought on economic and social conditions, the government is continuing to push its IMF/World Bank structural adjustment program aimed at encouraging exports and foreign investment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 3.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: accounts for 20% of GDP; 40% of land area divided into 4,500 large commercial farms and 42% in communal lands; crops - corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; self-sufficient in food

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals, foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1992; accounts for 35% of GDP

Labor force: 3.1 million
By occupation agriculture: 74%
By occupation transport and services: 16%
By occupation construction: 10% (1987)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: at least 45% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.7 billion
Expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $253 million (FY92/93)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodoties: agricultural 35% (tobacco 30%, other 5%), manufactures 25%, gold 12%, ferrochrome 10%, textiles 8% (1992)
Partners: UK 14%, Germany 11%, South Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 5% (1991)

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992 est.)
Commodoties: machinery and transportation equipment 41%, other manufactures 23%, chemicals 16%, fuels 12% (1991)
Partners: South Africa 25%, UK 15%, Germany 9%, US 6%, Japan 5% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $3.5 billion (December 1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1 - 8.3752 (January 1995), 8.1500 (1994), 6.4725 (1993), 5.1046 (1992), 3.4282 (1991), 2.4480 (1990)


Zimbabwe - Energy 1995
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9 billion kWh
Consumption per capita: 913 kWh (1993)

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Zimbabwe - Communication 1995
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 247,000 telephones; system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance
Local: NA
Intercity: consists of microwave links, open-wire lines, and radio communications stations
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Zimbabwe - Military 1995
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $175 million, 3.1% of GDP (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Zimbabwe - Transportation 1995
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 471
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 6
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 13
With paved runways under 914 m: 222
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2438 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 223

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 6
914 to 1523 m: 13
Under 914 m: 222

Airports with unpaved runways
15-24 to 2438 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 223

Heliports

Pipelines: petroleum products 212 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Zimbabwe - Transnational issues 1995
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Disputes international: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in disagreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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