Botswana 1996Botswana

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Botswana
Botswana 

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Botswana - Introduction 1996
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Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy closely tied to South Africa's is dominated by cattle raising and mining.


Botswana - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 600,370 km²
Land: 585,370 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: Total 4,013 km, Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: Predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
Extremes highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources:
Diamonds
Copper
Nickel
Salt
Soda ash
Potash
Coal
Iron ore
Silver

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 75%
Forests and woodland: 2%
Other: 21%

Irrigated land: 20 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Botswana - People 1996
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Population:
1,477,630 (July 1996 est.)
1,392,414 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.63% (1996 est.)
2.36% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:
Batswana 95%
Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%
White 1%


LanguagesEnglish (official), Setswana

Religions:
Indigenous beliefs 50%
Christian 50%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
42% (male 317,254; female 309,617)
43% (male 303,333; female 300,598)

15-64 years:
54% (male 374,572; female 419,991)
53% (male 344,838; female 398,347)

65 years and over:
4% (male 22,314; female 33,882) (July 1996 est.)
4% (female 25,773; male 19,525) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.63% (1996 est.)
2.36% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
33.34 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
31.01 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
17.01 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.41 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: overgrazing, primarily as a result of the expansion of the cattle population; desertification; limited natural fresh water resources
Current issues Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
International agreements: party to_Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity
International agreements note: Landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:54.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
38 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 46.01 years (1996 est.), 63.56 years (1995 est.)
Male: 44.94 years (1996 est.), 60.54 years (1995 est.)
Female: 47.11 years (1996 est.), 66.67 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.86 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 69.8%
Male: 80.5%
Female: 59.9%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Botswana - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
Conventional short form: Botswana
Former: Bechuanaland

Government type: Parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; in addition, there are 4 town councils_Francistown, Gaborone, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe

Dependent areas

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: Based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999); results_President Sir Ketumile MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament House of Chiefs:Is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of chiefs of the 8 principal tribes, 4 elected subchiefs, and 3 members selected by the other 12 National Assembly:Elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held October 1999; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(44 total of which 40 are elected and 4 are appointed) BDP 27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Botswana: Light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Botswana - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs and accounts for only 5% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to 39% in 1994. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 21%. Hampered by a still sluggish diamond market in 1994 and 1995, GDP grew by only 1% in both years.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
1% (1995 est.)
1% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts, beans, cowpeas, sunflower seeds; livestock

Industries:
Mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash
Livestock processing


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 4.6% (FY92/93; accounts for about 43% of GDP, including mining

Labor force: 428,000 (1992)
Note:
220,000 formal sector employees
most others are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.)
14,300 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1992 est.)

Labor force

Unemployment rate:
21% (1995 est.)
25% (1994 est.)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.7 billion
Expenditures: $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652 million (FY93/94)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1994)
Commodities:
Diamonds 78%
Copper and nickel 6%
Meat 5%

Partners:
Switzerland
U.K.
SACU (Southern African Customs Union)


Imports: total value:$1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
Commodities:
Foodstuffs
Vehicles and transport equipment
Textiles
Petroleum products

Partners:
Switzerland
SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
U.K.
U.S.


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$691 million (1994)
$344 million (December 1991)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Botswana - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 900 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 694 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Botswana - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 19,109 telephones (1985 est.); sparse system
Local: NA
Intercity: small system of open wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radio communication stations
International: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Botswana - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $199 million, 5.2% of GDP (FY93/94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Botswana - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 81
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 44 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 22

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 44 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 22

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Botswana - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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