Lebanon 1996Lebanon

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Lebanon
Lebanon 

Numa


Lebanon - Introduction 1996
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Background: Lebanon has made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions and regaining its national sovereignty since the end of the devastating 16-year civil war which began in 1975. Under the Ta'if accord_the blueprint for national reconciliation_the Lebanese have established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater say in the political process. Since December 1990, the Lebanese have formed four cabinets and conducted the first legislative election in 20 years. Most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded. The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) has seized vast quantities of weapons used by the militias during the war and extended central government authority over about one-half of the country. Hizballah, the radical Shi'a party, retains most of its weapons. Foreign forces still occupy areas of Lebanon. Israel maintains troops in southern Lebanon and continues to support a proxy militia, The Army of South Lebanon (ASL), along a narrow stretch of territory contiguous to its border. The ASL's enclave encompasses this self-declared security zone and about 20 kilometers north to the strategic town of Jazzin. Syria maintains about 30,000 troops in Lebanon. These troops are based mainly in Beirut, North Lebanon, and the Bekaa Valley. Syria's deployment was legitimized by the Arab League early in Lebanon's civil war and in the Ta'if accord. Citing the continued weakness of the LAF, Beirut's requests, and failure of the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Ta'if accord, Damascus has so far refused to withdraw its troops from Beirut.


Lebanon - Geography 1996
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Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 10,400 km²
Land: 10,230 km²
Comparative: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: Total 454 km, Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea:12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

Terrain: Narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Jabal al Makmal 3,087 m

Natural resources:
Limestone
Iron ore
Salt
Water-surplus state in a water-deficit region

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 21%
Permanent crops: 9%
Permanent pastures: 1%
Forests and woodland: 8%
Other: 61%

Irrigated land: 860 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Lebanon - People 1996
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Population:
3,776,317 (July 1996 est.)
3,695,921 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.16% (1996 est.)
2.15% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Lebanese

Ethnic groups:
Arab 95%
Armenian 4%
Other 1%


Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Armenian, English

Religions: Islam 70% (5 legally recognized Islamic groups_Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Isma'ilite, Shi'a, Sunni), Christian 30% (11 legally recognized Christian groups_4 Orthodox Christian, 6 Catholic, 1 Protestant), Judaism NEGL%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
36% (male 687,631; female 662,100) (July 1996 est.)
36% (male 682,757; female 657,403) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
59% (male 1,049,689; female 1,163,255) (July 1996 est.)
58% (male 1,016,859; female 1,131,450) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
5% (male 98,406; female 115,236) (July 1996 est.)
6% (male 95,867; female 111,585) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.16% (1996 est.)
2.15% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
27.93 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
27.9 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
6.35 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.44 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Current issues Natural hazards: duststorms, sandstorms
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
International agreements note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:36.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
38 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.99 years (1996 est.); 69.69 years (1995 est.)
Male: 67.49 years (1996 est.); 67.22 years (1995 est.)
Female: 72.62 years (1996 est.); 72.28 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.24 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.31 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 92.4%
Male: 94.7%
Female: 90.3%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Lebanon - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Lebanon
Conventional short form: Lebanon
Local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
Local short form: none

Government type: Republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular_muhafazah; Al Biqa, 'Al Janub, Ash Shamal, Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Constitution: 23 May 1926, amended a number of times

Legal system: Mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code, and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education

Executive branch
Chief of state:
President Ilyas HARAWI (since 24 November 1989) was elected for a six-year term by the National Assembly and in 1995 the National Assembly amended the constitution to extend his term by three years; note_by custom, the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim, and the speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a Muslim
Elections held on 31 May 1998

Head of government: Prime Minister Rafiq al-HARIRI (since 22 October 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Michel al-MURR (since NA) were appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly
Cabinet: Cabinet was chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the members of the National Assembly; the current Cabinet was formed in 1995

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Arabic_Majlis Alnuwab, French_Assemblee Nationale):Lebanon's first legislative election in 20 years was held in the summer of 1992; the National Assembly is composed of 128 deputies, one-half Christian and one-half Muslim; its mandate expires in 1996

Judicial branch: Four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Lebanon: Three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Lebanon - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The 1975-91 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and all but ended Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Peace has enabled the central government to restore control in Beirut, begin collecting taxes, and regain access to key port and government facilities. Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers. Family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid are the main sources of foreign exchange. In the relatively settled year of 1991, industrial production, agricultural output, and exports showed substantial gains. The rebuilding of the war-ravaged country was delayed in 1992 because of an upturn in political wrangling. In October 1992, Rafiq al-HARIRI was appointed prime minister. A billionaire entrepreneur, al-HARIRI, announced ambitious plans for Lebanon's reconstruction, which involve a substantial influx of foreign aid and investment. The economy has posted considerable gains since 1992, with GDP rebounding, inflation falling, and foreign capital inflows jumping. Signs of strain have emerged in recent years, however, as the government budget deficit has risen and grassroots economic dissatisfaction has grown. Meantime, the future fate of Lebanon and its economy is being determined largely by outside forces_in Syria, other Arab nations, Israel, and the West.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
6.5% (1995 est.)
8.5% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Principal products_citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp (hashish), sheep, goats; not self-sufficient in grain

Industries:
Banking
Food processing
Textiles
Cement
Oil refining
Chemicals
Jewelry
Some metal fabricating


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 25% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 650,000
By occupation Services: 60%
By occupation Industry: 28%
By occupation Agriculture: 12% (1990 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
30% (1995 est.)
35% (1993 est.)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.4 billion
Expenditures: $3.2 billion (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $1 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$925 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Commodities:
Agricultural products
Chemicals
Textiles
Precious and semiprecious metals and jewelry
Metals and metal products

Partners:
Saudi Arabia 13%
Switzerland 21%
UAE 11%
Syria 9%
U.S. 5%


Imports
Total value:
$7.3 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
$4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1993 est.)

Commodities:
Consumer goods
Machinery and transport equipment
Petroleum products

Partners:
Italy 14%
France 9%
U.S. 8%
Turkey 5%
Saudi Arabia 3%


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$1.2 billion (July 1995)
$765 million (1994 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (£L) per US$1_1,584.0 (March 1996), 1,621.4 (1995), 1,680.1 (1994), 1,741.4 (1993), 1,712.8 (1992), 928.2 (1991), 695.09 (1990)


Lebanon - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.5 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 676 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Lebanon - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 150,000 telephones; telecommunications system severely damaged by civil war; rebuilding still underway
Local: NA
Intercity: primarily microwave radio relay and cable
International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) earth stations (erratic operations); coaxial cable to Syria; microwave radio relay to Syria but inoperable beyond Syria to Jordan; 3 submarine coaxial cables

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Lebanon - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $278 million, 5.5% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Lebanon - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 7
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
Under 914 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 72 km (none in operation)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 192,075 GRT/296,256 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 39, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, livestock carrier 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 2 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Lebanon - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of hashish and heroin for the international drug trade; hashish production is shipped to Western Europe, the Middle East, and North and South America; increasingly a key locus of cocaine processing and trafficking; a Lebanese/Syrian 1994 eradication campaign eliminated the opium crop and caused a 50% decrease in the cannabis crop




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