Liechtenstein 1996Liechtenstein

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Liechtenstein - Introduction 1996
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Background: The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I it was closely tied to Austria but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth.

Liechtenstein - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 160 km²
Land: 160 km²
Comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: Total 78 km, Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: Mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Extremes lowest point: Ruggleller Riet 430 m
Extremes highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources: Hydroelectric potential
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 25%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 38%
Forests and woodland: 19%
Other: 18%

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Liechtenstein - People 1996
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31,122 (July 1996 est.)
30,654 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.08% (1996 est.)
1.2% (1995 est.)

Noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
Adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups:
Alemannic 95%
Italian and other 5%

Languages: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Roman Catholic 87.3%
Protestant 8.3%
Unknown 1.6%
Other 2.8% (1988)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
19% (male 2,961; female 2,871) (July 1996 est.)
19% (male 2,974; female 2,897) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
70% (male 10,775; female 11,113) (July 1996 est.)
71% (male 10,777; female 10,853) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
11% (male 1,366; female 2,036) (July 1996 est.)
10% (male 1,223; female 1,930) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.08% (1996 est.)
1.2% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
11.47 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.95 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
6.81 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.56 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
6.11 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
5.58 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: NA
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Landlocked; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.14 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:5.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
5.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.84 years (1996 est.), 77.52 years (1995 est.)
Male: 75.92 years (1996 est.), 73.86 years (1995 est.)
Female: 82.17 years (1996 est.), 81.17 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.37 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 10 and over that can read and write (1981)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Liechtenstein - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
Conventional short form: Liechtenstein
Local long form: Furstentum Liechtenstein
Local short form: Liechtenstein

Government type: Hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular_gemeinde; Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Dependent areas

Independence: 23 January 1719 (Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established)

National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: Local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Prince Hans ADAM II (since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein (born 11 June 1968)
Head of government: Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993); Deputy Head of Government Dr. Thomas BUECHEL (since 15 December 1993)
Cabinet: Cabinet; elected by the Diet; confirmed by the sovereign

Legislative branch: Unicameral Diet (Landtag):Elections last held on 24 October 1993 (next to be held by March 1997; results_VU 50.1%, FBP 41.3%, FL 8.5%; seats_(25 total) VU 13, FBP 11, FL 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal cases, Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Liechtenstein: Two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Liechtenstein - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital service sector and living standards on par with its large European neighbors. Low business taxes_the maximum tax rate is 20%_and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. Liechtenstein plans to join the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between EFTA and EU) in 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: NA

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Metal manufacturing
Food products
Precision instruments

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate NA

Labor force: 20,000 of which 12,000 are foreigners; 6,885 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day
By occupation industry trade andbuilding: 48.1%
By occupation services: 50.2%
By occupation fishing forestry andhorticulture: 1.7% (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
0.9% (1995)
1.5% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $455 million (1995 est.), $259 million (1990 est.)
Expenditures: $442 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.), $292 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. NA
Small specialty machinery
Dental products

EC countries 42.7%
EFTA countries 20.9% (Switzerland 15.4%)
Other 36.4% (1990)

Imports: total value:NA
Metal goods
Motor vehicles

Partners: NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: NA

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1: 1.1810 (January 1996), 1.1825 (1995), 1.3677 (1994), 1.4776 (1993), 1.4062 (1992), 1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990)

Liechtenstein - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 150 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 5,230 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Liechtenstein - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 18,916 telephones (1993 est.); limited, but sufficient automatic telephone system
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: linked to Swiss networks by cable and radio relay

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Liechtenstein - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Liechtenstein - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix


Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways






Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Liechtenstein - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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