Macau 1996Macau

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Macau
Macau 

Atlas VPN


Macau - Introduction 1996
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Background: Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987 Macau will become the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999. China has promised that under its 'one country two systems' formula China's socialist economic system will not be practiced in Macau and that Macau will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs.


Macau - Geography 1996
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Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates: 22 10 N, 113 33 E

Map referenceSoutheast Asia

Area
Total: 16 km²
Land: 16 km²
Water: 0 km²
Comparative: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries
Total: 0.34 km
Border countries: (1) China 0.34 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: not specified

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Coloane Alto 174 m

Natural resources: NEGL
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA km²

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards: NA

Geography


Macau - People 1996
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Population: 502,325 (July 1997 est.)
Growth rate: 1.05% (1997 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Macanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Macau

Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, Portuguese 3%, other 2%

Languages: Portuguese, Chinese (Cantonese)

Religions: Buddhist 45%, Roman Catholic 7%, Protestant 1%, none 45.8%, other 1.2% (1981)

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 23% (male 60,270; female 56,803)
15-64 years: 68% (male 169,850; female 171,551)
65 years and over: 9% (male 18,208; female 25,643) (July 1997 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.05% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.78 births/1000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.41 deaths/1000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.09 migrant(s)/1000 population (1997 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: NA
International agreements party to: Ozone Layer Protection (extended from Portugal)
International agreements signed but not ratified: NA
International agreements note: essentially urban; one causeway and two bridges connect the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 80.05 years
Male: 77.57 years
Female: 82.65 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.53 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 90%
Male: 93%
Female: 86% (1981 est.)

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Macau - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Macau
Local long form: none
Local short form: Ilha de Macau

Government type: NA

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular_concelho; Ilhas, Macau

Dependent areas

Independence: none (territory of Portugal; Portugal signed an agreement with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition)

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June (1580)

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau; basic law drafted primarily by Beijing, promulgated 31 March 1993

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President of Portugal Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
Head of government: Governor General Vasco Joachim Rocha VIERA (since 20 March 1991)
Cabinet: Consultative Council consists of a total of 15 members_five appointed by the governor, two nominated by the governor, five elected for a four-year term (two represent administrative bodies, one represents moral, cultural, and welfare interests, and two represent economic interests), and three statutory members
Elections: none; governor general appointed by the president of Portugal after consultation with the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (23 seats; 8 elected by popular vote, 8 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the governor; members serve four-year terms)
Elections: last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
Election results: percent of vote by party_NA; seats by party_NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, consisting of five magistrates including the president; lower court judges appointed for three-year terms by the governor

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, ESCAP (associate), IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO

Diplomatic representation
In the us: none (Chinese territory under Portuguese administration)
From the us: the US has no offices in Macau, and US interests are monitored by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag descriptionflag of Macau: the flag of Portugal is used

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Macau - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including gambling) and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have spawned other small industries_toys, artificial flowers, and electronics. The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings; the gambling industry probably represents over 40% of GDP. Macau depends on China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin
Agriculture: NA%
Industry: NA%
Services: NA%

Agriculture products: rice, vegeTABLEs

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Labor force
Total: 180,000 (1986)
By occupation: NA
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $305 million
Expenditures: $298 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value:$1.99 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
Commodities: textiles, clothing, toys
Partners: US 42%, Hong Kong 10%, Germany 9.9%, China 9.6%, France 8%, UK 7.2% (1995)

Imports: total value:$1.99 billion (c.i.f.,1996 est.)
Commodities: raw materials, foodstuffs, capital goods
Partners: Hong Kong 33%, China 20%, Japan 18% (1992 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $0 (1996)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1_7.962 (1996), 8.034 (1993-95), 7.973 (1992; note_linked to the Hong Kong dollar at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar


Macau - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,750 kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Macau - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services
Domestic: NA
International: HF radiotelephone communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided via Hong Kong and China; satellite earth station_1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Macau - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Macau - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1
With paved runways total: 1
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Total: 1
Over 3047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways: 0 km

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine: none

Ports and terminals


Macau - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international: none

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Turbopass


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