Nepal 1996Nepal

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Nepal
Nepal 

Corel


Nepal - Introduction 1996
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Background: In 1951 the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.


Nepal - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 140,800 km²
Land: 136,800 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: Total 2,926 km, China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources:
Quartz
Water
Timber
Hydroelectric potential
Scenic beauty
Small deposits of lignite
Copper
Cobalt
Iron ore

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 17%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 13%
Forests and woodland: 33%
Other: 37%

Irrigated land: 9,430 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Nepal - People 1996
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Population:
22,094,033 (July 1996 est.)
21,560,869 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.45% (1996 est.)
2.44% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Nepalese

Ethnic groups: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs, Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas

Languages: Nepali (official), 20 languages divided into numerous dialects

Religions:
Hindu 90%
Buddhist 5%
Muslim 3%
Other 2% (1981)

Note: Only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
42% (male 4,776,245; female 4,563,000) (July 1996 est.)
43% (male 4,692,575; female 4,479,950) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
55% (male 6,172,821; female 5,945,626) (July 1996 est.)
55% (male 5,994,147; female 5,778,107) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 320,350; female 315,991) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 310,588; female 305,502) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.45% (1996 est.)
2.44% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
37 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
37.31 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
12.56 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.9 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: the almost total dependence on wood for fuel and cutting down trees to expand agricultural land without replanting has resulted in widespread deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution (use of contaminated water presents human health risks)
Current issues Natural hazards: severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
International agreements note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.04 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:79 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
81.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 53.63 years (1996 est.); 53.09 years (1995 est.)
Male: 53.35 years (1996 est.); 52.86 years (1995 est.)
Female: 53.93 years (1996 est.); 53.34 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.06 children born/woman (1996 est.)
5.15 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 27.5%
Male: 40.9%
Female: 14%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Nepal - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Nepal
Conventional short form: Nepal

Government type: Parliamentary democracy as of 12 May 1991

CapitalKathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural; Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Dependent areas

Independence: 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Constitution: 9 November 1990

Legal system: Based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (succeeded to the throne 31 January 1972 following the death of his father King MAHENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev, crowned king 24 February 1975) is a constitutional monarch; Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA Bir Bikram
Head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 12 September 1995); note_in 1994, the king appointed Man Mohan ADHIKARI to be prime minister using the standard criterion_he was the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives following the last election; however, in September 1995, a parliamentary coalition of the Nepali Congress Party, the Rastriya Prajantra Party, the Nepal Sadbhavana Party, and independents voted against Prime Minister ADHIKARI; Sher Bahadur DEUBA, the leader of the Nepali Congress Party, then formed the new government and was appointed the new prime minister by the king
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the king on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament National Council:Consists of a 60-member body, 50 appointed by House of Representatives and 10 by the King House of Representatives:Elections last held 15 November 1994 (next to be held NA; results_NCP 33%, CPN/UML 31%, NDP 18%, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3%, NWPP 1%; seats_(205 total) CPN/UML 88, NCP 83, NDP 20, NWPP 4, Terai Rights Sadbhavana Party 3, independents 7
Note: the new Constitution of 9 November 1990 gave Nepal a multiparty democracy system for the first time in 32 years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIH, UNPROFOR, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Nepal: Red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Nepal - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting for about one-half of GDP. Industrial activity is limited, mainly involving the processing of agricultural produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain). Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for 85% of foreign exchange earnings in FY93/94. Apart from agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production in the late 1980s grew by about 5%, as compared with annual population growth of 2.6%. More than 40% of the population is undernourished. Since May 1991, the government has been moving forward with economic reforms particularly those that encourage trade and foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify investment procedures. The government has also been cutting public expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state industries, and laying off civil servants. (In 1995 little progress was made in these areas because the communist government had trouble formulating and implementing policies.) The new coalition government is planning to pick up the pace of reforms in 1996, focusing primarily on raising revenues to develop the rural sector by increasing taxation and privatization. Prospects for foreign trade and investment, particularly in areas other than power development and tourism, will continue to remain poor because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, and its susceptibility to natural disaster. The international community provides funding for 62% of Nepal's developmental budget and for 34% of total budgetary expenditures.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.3% (1995 est.)
5% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

Industries:
Small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills
Cigarette, textile, carpet, cement, and brick production
Tourism


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate:14.7% (FY94/95 est.)

Labor force: 8.5 million (1991 est.)
By occupation Agriculture: 93%
By occupation Services: 5%
By occupation Industry: 2%
By occupation note: Severe lack of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA; note_there is substantial underemployment (1995)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $645 million (FY94/95 est.); $455 million (FY93/94 est.)
Expenditures: $1.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.); $854 million, including capital expenditures of $427 million (FY93/94 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 16 July_15 July

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $430 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.) but does not include unrecorded border trade with India
$593 million (f.o.b., 1993) but does not include unrecorded border trade with India

Commodities:
Carpets
Clothing
Leather goods
Jute goods
Grain

Partners:
India
U.S.
Germany
U.K.


Imports
Total value:
$1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
$899 million (c.i.f., 1993)

Commodities:
Petroleum products 20%
Fertilizer 11%
Machinery 10%

Partners:
India
Singapore
Japan
Germany


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$2.3 billion (FY94/95 est.)
$2 billion (1993 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Nepal - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 920 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 41 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Nepal - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 82,774 telephones (1995 est.); poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio communication service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international radio communication service is fair; 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Nepal - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $36 million, 1.2% of GDP (FY92/93)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Nepal - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 43
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 10 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 27

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 10 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 27

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Nepal - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for heroin from Southeast Asia to the West


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