Serbia and Montenegro 1996Serbia%20and%20Montenegro

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Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro 

Skytours


Serbia and Montenegro - Introduction 1996
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Background: Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by various countries including the U.S.; the U.S. view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation. Recently the Kosovo region has seen disturbances by groups demanding its independence.


Serbia and Montenegro - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 102,350 km²
Land: 102,136 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Kentucky

Land boundaries: Total 2,246 km, Albania 287 km (114 km with Serbia; 173 km with Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro), Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Note: The internal boundary between Montenegro and Serbia is 211 km

Coastline: 199 km (Montenegro 199 km, Serbia 0 km)

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: In the north, continental climate (cold winter and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall; central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland

Terrain: Extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountain and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources:
Oil
Gas
Coal
Antimony
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Nickel
Gold
Pyrite
Chrome

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 30%
Permanent crops: 5%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 25%
Other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: Controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast


Serbia and Montenegro - People 1996
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Population
Total population: 10,614,558 (July 1996 est.)
11101833 July 1995 est. Montenegro: 635,442 (July 1996 est.)
708248 July 1995 est. Serbia:
9,979,116 (July 1996 est.)
10,393,585 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate Montenegro: 0.39% (1996 est.)
Growth rate 0.79 1995 est. Serbia:
0.39% (1996 est.)
0.51% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Serb(s) and Montenegrin(s)
Adjective: Serbian and Montenegrin

Ethnic groups:
Serbs 63%
Albanians 14%
Montenegrins 6%
Hungarians 4%
Other 13%


Languages: Serbo-Croatian 95%, Albanian 5%

Religions:
Orthodox 65%
Muslim 19%
Roman Catholic 4%
Protestant 1%
Other 11%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
21% (male 1,104,274; female 1,026,994) (July 1996 est.)
22% (male 1,173,224; female 1,095,121) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
66% (male 3,332,809; female 3,293,788) (July 1996 est.)
66% (male 3,483,066; female 3,431,823) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
13% (male 515,001; female 706,250) (July 1996 est.)
12% (male 510,863; female 699,488) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate
Montenegro: 0.39% (1996 est.)
0.79 1995 est. Serbia:
0.39% (1996 est.)
0.51% (1995 est.)


Birth rate
Montenegro: 11.86 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
14.39 births/1000 population 1995 est. Serbia:
13.98 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
14.15 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate
Montenegro: 7.76 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
5.7 deaths/1000 population 1995 est. Serbia:
10.25 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
8.72 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate
Montenegro: -0.2 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0.78 migrants/1000 population 1995 est. Serbia:
0.12 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-0.36 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: pollutio.htmcoastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Current issues Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
International agreements: NA

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
Montenegro at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Montenegro under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female
Montenegro_

15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female
Serbia_

65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
Montenegro all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)
Serbia at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
Serbia under 15 years:
1.08 male(s)/female
Serbia_

Serbia all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:Montenegro:27.5 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
9.8 deaths/1000 live births 1995 est. Serbia:
22.9 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
18.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.98 years (1996 est.), 73.94 years (1995 est.)
Male: 68.97 years (1996 est.), 71.4 years (1995 est.)
Female: 75.22 years (1996 est.), 76.68 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate
Montenegro: 1.53 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.79 children born/woman 1995 est. Serbia:
2 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: definition:NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Serbia and Montenegro - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Serbia and Montenegro
Local long form: none
Local short form: Srbija-Crna Gora
Note: Serbia and Montenegro has self-proclaimed itself the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia," but the US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation

Government type: Republic

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 2 republics (pokajine, singular_pokajina; and 2 nominally autonomous provinces*; Kosovo*, Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia_SFRY)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: 27 April 1992

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch
Chief of state:
(SERBIA) President Milan MILUTINOVIC (since 29 December 1997)
9 december 1990_29 december 1997 President Slobodan MILOSEVIC
(MONTENEGRO) Momir BULATOVIC is president of Montenegro (since 23 December 1990)

Head of government: Prime Minister Radoje KONTIC (since 29 December 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Jovan ZEBIC (since NA March 1993), Uros KLIKOVAC (since 15 September 1994), Nikola SAINOVIC (since 15 September 1995)
Cabinet: Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch
Chamber of Republics: Bicameral Federal Assembly Chamber of Republics; Elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results: percent of vote by party NA; seats_(40 total, 20 Serbian, 20 Montenegrin) seats by party NA; note_seats are filled on a proportional basis to reflect the composition of the legislatures of the republics of Montenegro and Serbia
Note: In Montenegro elections were held on 31 May 1998; Chamber of Citizens: Elections last held 20 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1996); results: percent of votes by party NA; seats: (138 total, 108 Serbian, 30 Montenegrin) SPS 47, SRS 34, Depos 20, DPSCG 17, DS 5, SP 5, NS 4, DZVM 3, other 3

Judicial branch: Savezni Sud (Federal Court), judges are elected by the Federal Assembly; Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Federal Assembly

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Serbia%20and%20Montenegro
Serbia flag: Three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
Montenegro flag: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), light blue and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Serbia and Montenegro - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The swift collapse of the Yugoslav federation in 1991 has been followed by highly destructive warfare, the destabilization of republic boundaries, and the breakup of important interrepublic trade flows. Serbia and Montenegro faces major economic problems; output has dropped sharply, particularly in 1993. Like the other former Yugoslav republics, it depended on its sister republics for large amounts of energy supplies and manufactures. Wide differences in climate, mineral resources, and levels of technology among the republics accentuated this interdependence, as did the communist practice of concentrating much industrial output in a small number of giant plants. The breakup of many of the trade links, the sharp drop in output as industrial plants lost suppliers and markets, and the destruction of physical assets in the fighting all have contributed to the economic difficulties of the republics. One singular factor in the economic situation of Serbia and Montenegro is the continuation in office of a communist government that is primarily interested in political and military mastery, not economic reform. Hyperinflation ended with the establishment of a new currency unit in June 1993; prices were relatively stable in 1994. Reliable statistics are hard to come by; the GDP estimate of $2,000 per capita is extremely rough. The economy is recovering extremely slowly following the suspension of UN sanctions in December 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: The fertile plains of Vojvodina produce 80% of the cereal production of the former Yugoslavia and most of the cotton, oilseeds, and chicory; Vojvodina also produces fodder crops to support intensive beef and dairy production; Serbia proper, although hilly, has a well-distributed rainfall and a long growing season; produces fruit, grapes, and cereals; in this area, livestock production (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming prosper; Kosovo produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals; the mountainous pastures of Kosovo and Montenegro support sheep and goat husbandry; Montenegro has only a small agriculture sector, mostly near the coast where a Mediterranean climate permits the culture of olives, citrus, grapes, and rice

Industries:
Machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles
Armored vehicles and weapons
Electrical equipment
Agricultural machinery), metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium), mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone), consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances), electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate NA

Labor force: 2,640,909
By occupation Industry mining: 40% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: More than 40% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. NA
Commodities:
Prior to the breakup of the federation
Yugoslavia exported machinery and transport equipment
Manufactured goods
Chemicals
Food and live animals
Raw materials

Partners:
Prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were the other former Yugoslav republics
Italy
Germany
Other EC
The FSU countries
East European countries
U.S.


Imports: total value:NA
Commodities:
Prior to the breakup of the federation
Yugoslavia imported machinery and transport equipment
Fuels and lubricants
Manufactured goods
Chemicals
Food and live animals
Raw materials including coking coal for the steel industry

Partners:
Prior to the imposition of UN sanctions trade partners were the other former Yugoslav republics
The FSU countries
EC countries (mainly Italy and Germany)
East European countries
U.S.


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.2 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Yugoslav New Dinars (YD) per U.S. $1_official rate:1.5; black market rate:2 to 3 (early 1995)


Serbia and Montenegro - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 34 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,400 kWh (1994 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Serbia and Montenegro - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 700,000 telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Serbia and Montenegro - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Serbia and Montenegro - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 44
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 14

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 14 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 14

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 415 km; petroleum products 130 km; natural gas 2,110 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine: Montenegro: Total 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 326,133 GRT/544,600 DWT (controlled by Montenegrin beneficial owners); Serbia: Total 2 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,916 GRT/77,103 DWT (controlled by Serbian beneficial owners);
Ships by type: Montenegro: bulk 9, cargo 8, container 3, short-sea passenger ferry 1; Serbia: bulk 2
Note: Montenegro: Under Maltese and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines flags (no ships remain under Yugoslav flag); Serbia: All under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; no ships remain under Yugoslav flag

Ports and terminals


Serbia and Montenegro - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: NA


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