Slovenia 1996Slovenia

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Slovenia - Introduction 1996
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Background: In 1918 the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new nation renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia which though communist distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe make Slovenia a candidate for future membership in the EU.

Slovenia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Croatia and Italy

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 20,296 km²
Land: 20,296 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: Total 1,045 km, Austria 262 km, Croatia 501 km, Italy 199 km, Hungary 83 km

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain: A short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Highest point: Triglav 2,864 m


Natural resources:
Lignite coal

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 10%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 45%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Slovenia - People 1996
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1,951,443 (July 1996 est.)
2,051,522 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
-0.27% (1996 est.)
0.24% (1995 est.)

Noun: Slovene(s)
Adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups:
Slovene 91%
Croat 3%
Serb 2%
Muslim 1%
Other 3%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 7%, other 2%

Roman Catholic 96% (including 2% Uniate), Muslim 1%
Other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
17% (male 172,778; female 163,695) (July 1996 est.)
19% (male 200,957; female 191,318) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
70% (male 682,501; female 678,781) (July 1996 est.)
69% (male 708,482; female 701,082) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
13% (male 91,819; female 161,869) (July 1996 est.)
12% (male 89,021; female 160,662) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-0.27% (1996 est.)
0.24% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
8.27 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
11.85 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
9.4 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.27 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-1.57 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-0.19 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Current issues Natural hazards: flooding and earthquakes
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:7.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
7.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.09 years (1996 est.), 74.73 years (1995 est.)
Male: 71.4 years (1996 est.), 70.91 years (1995 est.)
Female: 79 years (1996 est.), 78.76 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.13 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.64 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: definition:NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Slovenia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
Conventional short form: Slovenia
Local long form: Republika Slovenije
Local short form: Slovenija

Government type: Emerging democracy

Capital: Ljubljana

Administrative divisions: 60 provinces (pokajine, singular_pokajina) Ajdovscina, Brezice, Celje, Cerknica, Crnomelj, Dravograd, Gornja Radgona, Grosuplje, Hrastnik Lasko, Idrija, Ilirska Bistrica, Izola, Jesenice, Kamnik, Kocevje, Koper, Kranj, Krsko, Lenart, Lendava, Litija, Ljubljana-Bezigrad, Ljubljana-Center, Ljubljana-Moste-Polje, Ljubljana-Siska, Ljubljana-Vic-Rudnik, Ljutomer, Logatec, Maribor, Metlika, Mozirje, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ormoz, Pesnica, Piran, Postojna, Ptuj, Radlje Ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne Na Koroskem, Ribnica, Ruse, Sentjur Pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skofja Loka, Slovenj Gradec, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje Pri Jelsah, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trzic, Velenje, Vrhnika, Zagorje Ob Savi, Zalec

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution: Adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Milan KUCAN (since 22 April 1990); elections last held 23 november 1997 (next to be held NA 2003); results_Milan KUCAN reelected by direct popular vote (55.6% of the votes)
Head of government: Prime Minister Janez DRNOVSEK (since 14 May 1992)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: Bicameral National Assembly State Assembly:Elections last held 6 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(90 total) LDS 22, SKD 15, United List (former Communists and allies) 14, Slovene National Party 12, SLS 10, Democratic Party 6, ZS 5, SDSS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1 State Council:The Council is an advisory body with no direct legislative powers; in the election of 6 December 1992, 40 members were elected to represent local, professional, and socioeconomic interests (next election to be held NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the National Assembly on recommendation of the Judicial Council; Constitutional Court, judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Slovenia: Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav in white against a blue background at the center, beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and around it, there are three six-sided stars arranged in an inverted triangle; the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Slovenia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Slovenia appears to be making a solid economic recovery, fulfilling the promise it showed at the time of Yugoslavia's breakup. Its per capita GDP is now the highest in Central and Eastern Europe and not far below the levels in the poorer West European countries. Slovenia has benefited from strong ties to Western Europe and suffered comparatively small physical damage during Yugoslavia's breakup. The beginning was difficult, however. Real GDP fell 15% in 1991-92, while inflation soared to 200% in 1992 and unemployment reached 9%. The turning point came in 1993, when real GDP grew 1%, unemployment leveled off, and inflation slowed dramatically. In 1994, real GDP rose 5.5%, tapering off to an estimated 4.8% in 1995, while inflation and unemployment both were down to about 8% by late 1995. The government gets good marks from foreign observers for fiscal policy_the budget deficit has not exceeded 1% of GDP in any year since 1991, and the current account balance has remained in surplus throughout the transition period, with the exception of 1995. The Slovene privatization program, which began in 1994, involves about 1,400 firms, but only 412 have been privatized. The rest are expected to reach private hands by end-1996, but that does not include firms in so-called strategic industries, such as telecommunications and energy. Foreign investment jumped to an estimated $150 million in 1995 from $83.7 million in 1994. With inflation and unemployment expected to continue edging down, the outlook for 1996 is generally good. A slowdown in Western Europe_which buys 70% of Slovenia's exports_could hurt exports, however, lowering GDP growth to about 4% and perhaps pushing the current account into a small deficit.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
3.5% (1997)
4.8% (1995 est.)
4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 4.8% of GDP (1993; dominated by stock breeding (sheep and cattle) and dairy farming; main crops_potatoes, hops, hemp, flax; an export surplus in these commodities; Slovenia must import many other agricultural products and has a negative overall trade balance in this sector

Ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products
Aluminum reduction and rolled products
Lead and zinc smelting
Electronics (including military electronics)
Electric power equipment
Wood products
Machine tools

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 2% (1995 est.), 6% (1994 est.), accounts for 37% of GDP (1993)

Labor force: 786,036
By occupation Agriculture: 2%
By occupation Manufacturing and mining: 46%
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
10.3% (1997)
8% (December 1995 est.)
9% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $6.6 billion
Expenditures: $6.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1993)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $8.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$6.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Machinery and transport equipment 27%
Intermediate manufactured goods 26%
Chemicals 9%
Food 4.8%
Raw materials 3%
Consumer goods 26% (1993)

Germany 30.9%
Former Yugoslavia 14%
Italy 14.1%
France 8.9%
Austria 6.4% (1995 est.)

Total value:
$9.1 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$6.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Machinery and transport equipment 30%
Intermediate manufactured goods 17.6%
Chemicals 11.5%
Raw materials 5.3%
Fuels and lubricants 10.8%
Food 8.4% (1993)

Germany 23.3%
Italy 16.8%
Former Yugoslavia 7.0%
France 8.5%
Austria 9.7% (1995)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$2.9 billion (1995)
$2.1 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Tolars (SIT) per US$1_121.27 (November 1995), 118.9 (1995), 128.81 (1994), 113.24 (1993), 81.29 (1992), 27.57 (1991)

Slovenia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.9 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,470 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Slovenia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 527,800 telephones (1993 est.)
Domestic: nationwide GSM mobile phone system
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Slovenia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Slovenia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 14
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 5

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 5

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km



Waterways: NA

Merchant marine
Total: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 229,727 GRT/290,456 DWT (controlled by Slovenian owners)
Ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 1, container 4
Note: Ships under the flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, Liberia; no ships remain under the Slovenian flag (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Slovenia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe


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