Statistical information Albania 1996Albania

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Albania - Introduction 1996
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Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with severe unemployment and widespread gangsterism.


Albania - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 28,750 km²
Land: 27,400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: Total 720 km, Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: Mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources:
Petroleum
Natural gas
Coal
Chromium
Copper
Timber
Nickel

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 21%
Permanent crops: 4%
Permanent pastures: 15%
Forests and woodland: 38%
Other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Albania - People 1996
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Population: 3,413,904 (July 1995 est.) 3,249,136 (July 1996 est.)
Note: IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates the population at 3,120,000 in 1993 and that the population has fallen since 1990
Growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.) 1.34% (1996 est.)

Nationality
Noun: Albanian(s)
Adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups:
Albanian 95%
Greeks 3%
Other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)

Note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Religions:
Muslim 70%
Albanian Orthodox 20%
Roman Catholic 10%

Note: All mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 32% (female 520,186; male 563,953) (1995) 34% (male 570,978; female 529,147) (1996)
15-64 years: 62% (female 1,026,321; male 1,104,371) (1995) 60% (male 910,873; female 1,049,662) (1996)
65 years and over: 6% (female 112,252; male 86,821) (July 1995 est.) 6% (male 77,799; female 110,677) (July 1996 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1995 est.) 1.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 21.7 births/1000 population (1995 est.) 22.21 births/1000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.22 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.) 7.64 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.88 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.) -1.17 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Current issues Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change
International agreements note: Strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: at birth:1.08 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
All ages: 0.92 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:28.1 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.) 49.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.81 years (1995) 67.92 years (1996)
Male: 70.83 years (1995) 64.91 years (1996)
Female: 77.02 years (1995 est.) 71.17 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.71 children born/woman (1995 est.) 2.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 9 and over that can read and write (1955)
Total population: 72%
Male: 80%
Female: 63%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Albania - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Albania
Conventional short form: Albania
Local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
Local short form: Shqiperia
Former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type: Emerging democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular_rreth; Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore; note_some new administrative units may have been created

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: An interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: Has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor):Elections last held 22 March 1992; results_DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats_(140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2
Note: 6 members of the Democratic Party defected making the present seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1, UHP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Albania: Red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Albania - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. Stabilization policies_including a strict monetary policy, public sector layoffs, and reduced social services_have improved the government's fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery has been spurred by the remittances of some 20% of the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. Albania's industrial sector ended its five-year, 78% decline in 1995, recording roughly 6% growth. A sharp fall in chromium prices has reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the work force. Now that sanctions on Serbia have been suspended, the falloff in hard currency earnings from smuggling will aggravate unemployment problems. Growth is expected to continue in 1996, but could falter if workers' remittances from Greece are reduced or foreign assistance declines.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 11% (1994 est.) 6% (1995 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 55% of GDP; arable land: per capita among lowest in Europe; 80% of arable land: now in private hands; 60% of the work force engaged in farming; produces wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Industries:
Food processing
Textiles and clothing
Lumber
Oil
Cement
Chemicals
Mining
Basic metals
Hydropower


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -10% (1993 est.), accounts for 16% of GDP (1993 est.)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1987) 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed)
By occupation Agriculture: 60%
By occupation Industry and commerce: 40% (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 18% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.1 billion (1995) $486.3 million (1996)
Expenditures: $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.) $550.4 million, including capital expenditures of $124 million (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $112 million (f.o.b., 1993) $141 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodities:
Asphalt
Metals and metallic ores
Electricity
Crude oil
Vegetables
Fruits
Tobacco

Partners:
Italy
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Italy
Greece
U.S.


Imports: total value:$601 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities:
Machinery
Consumer goods
Grains

Partners:
Italy
The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Turkey
Bulgaria
Greece


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $977 million (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
1 lek (L) = 100 qintars
leke (L) per US$1_95.65 (January 1996), 100.00 (January 1995), 99.00 (January 1994), 97.00 (January 1993), 50.00 (January 1992), 25.00 (September 1991)



Albania - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 4 billion kWh (1995) 3.9 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,200 kWh (1994)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Albania - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: About 55,000 telephones; about 15 telephones/1000 persons
Local: primitive; about 11,000 telephones in Tirane, the capital city
Intercity: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences
International: inadequate; carried through the Tirane exchange and transmitted through Italy on 240 microwave radio relay circuits and through Greece on 150 microwave radio relay circuits

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Albania - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Albania - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 11
2438 to 3047 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 2
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Merchant marine: total:11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT

Ports and terminals


Albania - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium production


Adrenaline


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