Statistical information Antarctica 1996Antarctica

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Antarctica in the World
Antarctica in the World

Economy Bookings


Antarctica - Introduction 1996
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Background: Speculation over the existence of a 'southern land' was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British and American commercial operators and British and Russian national expeditions began exploring the Peninsula region and areas south of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1838 was it established that Antarctica was indeed a continent and not just a group of islands. Various 'firsts' were achieved in the early 20th century including: 1902 first balloon flight (by British explorer Robert Falcon SCOTT); 1912 first to the South Pole (five Norwegian explorers under Roald AMUNDSEN); 1928 first fixed-wing aircraft flight (by Australian adventurer/explorer Sir Hubert WILKINS); 1929 first flight over the South Pole (by Americans Richard BYRD and Bernt BALCHEN); and 1935 first transantarctic flight (American Lincoln ELLSWORTH). Following World War II there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up year-round research stations on Antarctica. Seven have made territorial claims but no other country recognizes these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959 it entered into force in 1961.


Antarctica - Geography 1996
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Location: Continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle Geographic coordinates:90 00 S, 0 00 E

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total area total: 14 million km² (est.)
Land: 14 million km² (est.)
Comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries

Coastline: 17,968 km Maritime claims:None, see entry on International disputes International disputes:Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below; sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so; no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

Maritime claims

Climate: Severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m Natural resources:None presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities Land use:
Arable land: 0%
Permanent crops: 0%
Meadows and pastures: 0%
Forest and woodland: 0%
Other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) Irrigated land:0 km²
Current issues: in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when measurements were first taken
Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
International agreements: NA
Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

Elevation

Natural resources
Land use

Land use

Irrigated land

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Antarctica - People 1996
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Population: No indigenous inhabitants; note_there are seasonally staffed research stations Summer (January) population:Over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90) Winter (July) population:Over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90) Year-round stations:42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6 (1990-91) Summer-only stations:Over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90; note_the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties

Nationality

Ethnic groups

Languages

Religions

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate

Birth rate

Death rate

Net migration rate

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment

Air pollutants

Sex ratio

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Antarctica - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Antarctica

Government type
Antarctic Treaty Summary: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings_the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations:26 consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are_Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are_Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are_Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992).
Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose
Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue
Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies
Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes
Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south
Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be given
Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states
Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations
Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty
Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ
Articles 12 13 14: deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations Other agreements:More than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include_Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; 21 parties have ratified Protocol as of April 1996 Legal system:US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2,401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute:The taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5,801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20,520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22,230 (703) 306-1031.

Capital

Administrative divisions

Dependent areas

Independence

National holiday

Constitution

Legal system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage

Executive branch

Legislative branch

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Antarctica

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Antarctica - Economy 1996
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Economy overview:
The Norwegian invention of the exploding harpoon in 1870 revolutionised whaling and its impact was felt in the Antarctic waters as much as anywhere. Between 1904 and 1966, when the majority of whaling ceased, a total of 41,515 blue whales were caught along with 87,555 fins, 26,754 humpbacks, 15,128 seis and 3,716 sperm whales_a total of 175,250 animals! And today around 300 whales are still taken from the Antarctic waters by the Japanese for 'research'; that is, they sell the flesh to fund their marine research programmes (whale meat is highly prized in Japanese eateries). Krill is harvested by the Japanese (and a small amount by Russia) at around 100,000 tonnes per anum. The long-line trawling techniques used for catching tuna in the Southern Ocean also manage to snare and drown about 40,000 albatrosses that steal bait from the lines. Iron ore, coal and other mineral deposits have been found on the continent but their quantities and qualities are unknown. Oil and natural gas are said to exist under the continental shelf but at the moment commercial exploitation is uneconomic.
Since 1988, two international conventions have been signed to protect the Antarctic from commercial mineral exploitation. The first was the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources Activities (CRAMRA) signed by all 26 members of the Antarctic Treaty. Australia and then France repudiated their signatures preferring instead the Protocol on Environmental Protection signed in Madrid in 1991 again by all 26 members of the Antarctic Treaty. This protects the continent from all mining activities for 50 years. The convention requires that all 26 countries enact national legislation to make it international law, and this is yet to happen.
No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.


Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products

Industries

Industrial production growth rate

Labor force
Labor force

Unemployment rate

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports

Imports

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Antarctica - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production

Electricity consumption

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Antarctica - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: NA telephones
Domestic: NA
International: NA

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Antarctica - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Antarctica - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Antarctica - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Economy Bookings


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