Statistical information Armenia 1996Armenia

Map of Armenia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Armenia - Introduction 1996
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Background: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's eight-year old conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the sides have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. President TER-PETROSSIAN's latitude on the issue may be further constrained by his controversial reelection in September 1996. When supporters of the main opposition candidate stormed the parliament following the announcement of TER-PETROSSIAN's victory, MVD forces were called in to restore order. The subsequent political standoff between government and opposition supporters diminished in late 1996 as the government has gradually attempted reconciliation. Despite these political problems, the Armenian government has been pursuing its aggressive economic reform program, although implementation of its privatization program stalled in late 1996.

Armenia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 29,800 km²
Land: 28,400 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: Total 1,254 km, Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: High Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Extremes lowest point: Debed River 400 m
Extremes highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources:
Small deposits of gold

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 17%
Permanent crops: 3%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 60%

Irrigated land: 3,050 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Armenia - People 1996
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3,463,574 (July 1996 est.)
3,557,284 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.02% (1996 est.)
0.94% (1995 est.)

Noun: Armenian(s)
Adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups:
Armenian 93%
Azeri 3%
Russian 2%
Other (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)

Note: As of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from Armenia

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
28% (male 497,461; female 476,649) (July 1996 est.)
31% (male 570,998; female 542,664) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
64% (male 1,085,935; female 1,132,282) (July 1996 est.)
61% (male 1,076,226; female 1,103,171) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
8% (male 111,661; female 159,586) (July 1996 est.)
8% (male 109,441; female 154,784) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.02% (1996 est.)
0.94% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
16.27 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
22.79 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
7.73 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.66 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-8.3 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-6.68 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies
Current issues Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Desertification
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:38.9 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
26 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.06 years (1996 est.), 72.36 years (195 est.)
Male: 64.44 years (1996 est.), 68.94 years (1995 est.)
Female: 73.92 years (1996 est.), 75.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.06 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.06 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Armenia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
Conventional short form: Armenia
Local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
Local short form: Hayastan
Former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 37 regions (shrjanner, singular_shrjan) and 23 cities* (kaghakner, singular_kaghak); Abovyan*, Akhuryani Shrjan, Alaverdi*, Amasiayi Shrjan, Anii Shrjan, Aparani Shrjan, Aragatsi Shrjan, Ararat*, Ararati Shrjan, Armaviri Shrjan, Artashat*, Artashati Shrjan, Art'ik*, Art'iki Shrjan, Ashots'k'i Shrjan, Ashtarak*, Ashtaraki Shrjan, Baghramyani Shrjan, Ch'arents'avan*, Dilijan*, Ejmiatsin*, Ejmiatsni Shrjan, Goris*, Gorisi Shrjan, Gugark'i Shrjan, Gyumri*, Hoktemberyan*, Hrazdan*, Hrazdani Shrjan, Ijevan*, Ijevani Shrjan, Jermuk*, Kamo*, Kamoyi Shrjan, Kapan*, Kapani Shrjan, Kotayk'i Shrjan, Krasnoselski Shrjan, Martunu Shrjan, Masisi Shrjan, Meghru Shrjan, Metsamor*, Nairii Shrjan, Noyemberyani Shrjan, Sevan*, Sevani Shrjan, Sisiani Shrjan, Spitak*, Spitaki Shrjan, Step'anavan*, Step'anavani Shrjan, T'alini Shrjan, Tashiri Shrjan, Taushi Shrjan, T'umanyani Shrjan, Vanadzor*, Vardenisi Shrjan, Vayk'i Shrjan, Yeghegnadzori Shrjan, Yerevan*
Note: with the adoption of the new constitution of 5 July 1995, the country was divided into 10 provinces plus the capital:Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Gegharkunik, Gugark, Kotayk, Shirak, Syunk, Uak, Vayots Dzor, and the capital city of Yerevan

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic; 23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: Adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN (since NA October 1991) was elected Chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet 4 August 1990 before being elected president by popular vote; election last held 16 October 1991 (next to be held NA September 1996); results_Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN 86%, radical nationalists 7% (est.)
Head of government: Prime Minister Hrant BAGRATYAN (since 16 February 1993) was appointed by the president; First Deputy Prime Minister Vigen CHITECHYAN (since 16 February 1993)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly:Elections last held 5 July 1995 (next to be held NA 2000; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(190 total) Republican Bloc 159 (ANM 63, DLP-Hanrapetutyun Bloc 6, Republic Party 4, CDU 3, Intellectual Armenia 3, Social Democratic Party 2, independents 78), SWM 8, ACP 7, NDU 5, NSDU 3, DLP 1, ARF 1, other 4, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Armenia: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and gold

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Armenia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine building tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia is a food importer and its mineral deposits (gold, bauxite) are small. The economic decline in recent years (1991-94) has been particularly severe due to the ongoing conflict over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan and Turkey have blockaded pipeline and railroad traffic to Armenia for its support of the Karabakh Armenians. This has left Armenia with chronic energy shortages because of a lack of capacity and frequent disruptions of natural gas deliveries through unstable Georgia, as well as difficulties in obtaining other types of fuel. Nevertheless, the economy appears to have bottomed out due largely to the government's strong reform program. GDP grew by about 5% in 1995. Inflation fell from an average 40% per month in early 1994 to an average 2.4% per month in 1995. A full economic recovery, however, cannot be expected until the conflict is settled and the blockade lifted.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
5.2% (1995 est.)
-2% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Only 17% of land area is arable; employs 2% of labor force; fruits (especially grapes) and vegetable farming, minor livestock sector; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs

Traditionally diverse, including (as a percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting machine tools (5.5%), forging-pressing machines (1.9%), electric motors (9%), tires (1.5%), knitted wear (4.4%), hosiery (3.0%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (0.8%), washing machines (2.0%), chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics (1990)
Currently, much of industry is shut down

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 2.4% (1995 est.), 7% (1994 est.), accounts for 36% of GDP

Labor force: 1.012 million
By occupation Industry and construction: 46%
By occupation Agriculture: 2%
By occupation Transportation and communication: 7%
By occupation Other: 45% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
8% officially registered unemployed, but large numbers of underemployed (December 1995)
6.5% of officially registered unemployed but large numbers of underemployed (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $248 million (f.o.b., 1995)
$43 million to countries outside the FSU (f.o.b., 1994)

Gold and jewelry
Transport equipment
Electrical equipment


Total value:
$661 million (c.i.f., 1995)
$120 million from countries outside the FSU (c.i.f., 1994)

Other foods
Other energy


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $850 million (of which $75 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Dram per US$1_401.8 (end December 1995), 406 (end December 1994)

Armenia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 5.7 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,620 kWh (1994)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Armenia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: About 650,000 telephones; joint venture agreement to install fiber-optic cable and construct facilities for cellular telephone service remains in the negotiation phase
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international connections to other former republics of the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow international gateway switch; 1 INTELSAT satellite link

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Armenia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Armenia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 11
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Natural gas 900 km (1991)



Waterways: NA km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Armenia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

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