Statistical information Bahrain 1996Bahrain

Map of Bahrain | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bahrain in the World
Bahrain in the World

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Bahrain - Introduction 1996
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Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir is pushing economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community.


Bahrain - Geography 1996
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Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 620 km²
Land: 620 km²
Comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: Mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
Highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Elevation

Natural resources:
Oil
Associated and nonassociated natural gas
Fish

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 6%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 90%

Irrigated land: 10 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Bahrain - People 1996
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Population:
590,042 (July 1996 est.)
575,925 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.27% (1996 est.)
2.58% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Bahraini(s)
Adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:
Bahraini 63%
Asian 13%
Other Arab 10%
Iranian 8%
Other 6%


Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Religions:
Shi'a Muslim 70%
Sunni Muslim 30%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
31% (male 92,455; female 89,554) (July 1996 est.)
31% (male 89,976; female 87,398) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
67% (male 236,048; female 156,556) (July 1996 est.)
67% (male 231,586; female 152,363) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
2% (male 7,956; female 7,473) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 7,551; female 7,051) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.27% (1996 est.)
2.58% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
23.58 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
24.12 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
3.29 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
3.31 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
2.42 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
4.95 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for all water needs
Current issues Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms
International agreements: party to_Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity
International agreements note: Close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.51 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.33 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:17.1 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
18 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 74.27 years (1996 est.); 73.94 years (1995 est.)
Male: 71.78 years (1996 est.); 71.46 years (1995 est.)
Female: 76.83 years (1996 est.); 76.49 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.08 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.12 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 85.2%
Male: 89.1%
Female: 79.4%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Bahrain - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: State of Bahrain
Conventional short form: Bahrain
Local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
Local short form: Al Bahrayn

Government type: Traditional monarchy

Capital: al-Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalites (manatiq, singular_mintaqah; Al Hadd, al-Manama, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

Dependent areas

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1961)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: Based on Islamic law and English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: None

Executive branch
Chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November 1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January 1949)
Head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 19 January 1970)
Cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet; appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Bahrain: Red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Bahrain - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-2% (1995 est.)
2.2% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP; not self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, fish

Industries:
Petroleum processing and refining
Aluminum smelting
Offshore banking
Ship repairing


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 13% (1992; accounts for 38% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 140,000
By occupation Industry and commerce: 85%
By occupation Agriculture: 5%
By occupation Services: 5%
By occupation Government: 3% (1982)
By occupation note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
25% (1994 est.)
15% (1991 est.)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $1.38 billion (1995 est.); $1.2 billion (1989)
Expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.); $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$3.69 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Commodities:
Petroleum and petroleum products 80%
Aluminum 7%

Partners:
Japan 14%
UAE 5%
U.S. 6%
India 20%
Saudi Arabia 7% (1994)


Imports
Total value:
$3.29 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
$3.83 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Commodities:
Nonoil 59%
Crude oil 41%

Partners:
Saudi Arabia 37%
U.K. 6%
Japan 5%
U.S. 12%
Germany 4% (1994)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.6 billion (1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1_0.3760 (fixed rate)


Bahrain - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 5,453 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Bahrain - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 73,552 telephones (1987 est.); modern system; good domestic services; excellent international connections
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: Tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Bahrain - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $247 million, 5.5% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Bahrain - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,060 GRT/194,061 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Bahrain - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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