Statistical information Bangladesh 1996Bangladesh

Map of Bangladesh | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bangladesh in the World
Bangladesh in the World

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Bangladesh - Introduction 1996
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Background: Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. A third of this desperately poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy season hampering normal economic development.


Bangladesh - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 144,000 km²
Land: 133,910 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: Total 4,246 km, Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 18 nm
Continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March; hot, humid summer (March to June; cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: Mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Reng Tlang 957 m

Natural resources:
Natural gas
Arable land
Timber

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 67%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 4%
Forests and woodland: 16%
Other: 11%

Irrigated land: 27,380 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Bangladesh - People 1996
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Population:
123,062,800 (July 1996 est.)
128,094,948 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.85% (1996 est.)
2.32% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Bangladeshi(s)
Adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups:
Bengali 98%
Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1 million


Languages: Bangla (official), English

Religions:
Muslim 83%
Hindu 16%
Buddhist
Christian
Other


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
39% (male 24,434,219; female 23,436,359) (July 1996 est.)
40% (male 26,352,299; female 25,195,262) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
58% (male 36,607,942; female 34,603,628)(July 1996 est.)
57% (male 37,867,705; female 34,862,105) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 2,175,017; female 1,805,635) (July 1996 est.)
3% (male 2,056,241; female 1,761,336) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.85% (1996 est.)
2.32% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
30.5 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
34.62 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
11.21 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
11.43 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-0.78 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Current issues Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely flooded during the summer monsoon season
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Law of the sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:102.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
104.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 55.86 years (1996 est.); 55.46 years (1995 est.)
Male: 56.02 years (1996 est.); 55.69 years (1995 est.)
Female: 55.69 years (1996 est.); 55.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.57 children born/woman (1996 est.)
4.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 38.1%
Male: 49.4%
Female: 26.1%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Bangladesh - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
Conventional short form: Bangladesh
Former: East Pakistan

Government type: Republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended many times

Legal system: Based on English common law

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991); election last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996); results_Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
Head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Muhammad Habibur RAHMAN (since 31 March 1996) was appointed by the president (see note under Legislative branch entry)
Cabinet: Advisory Council was appointed by the president on 3 April 1996

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad):Elections last held 15 February 1996 (next to be held NA; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for women) seats by party NA; note_the election was held despite the fact that it was boycotted by the major opposition parties; Prime Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN's party won a landslide victory, but, under continuing pressure from the opposition, who called for an annulment of the results, National Parliament passed a bill that established a caretaker government to oversee new elections on a date yet to be determined; President BISWAS then dissolved Parliament and named a caretaker prime minister to replace Prime Minister ZIAur RAHMAN

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Bangladesh: Green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center; green is the traditional color of Islam

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Bangladesh - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least developed nations. Annual GDP growth has averaged over 4% in recent years from a low base. Its economy is overwhelmingly agricultural, with the cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy. Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas), inadequate power supplies, and, most recently, political disturbances. In 1995, progress on Bangladesh's development agenda has been slowed by frequent political unrest before and after national elections in early 1996. Opposition parties have challenged the government's authority by resigning from Parliament and sponsoring numerous countrywide strikes that have crippled transport, hindered business activity, and threatened to slow economic growth in 1996.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
4.6% (1995 est.)
4.5% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 33% of GDP, 65% of employment, and one-fifth of exports; world's largest exporter of jute; commercial products_jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils, cotton

Industries:
Jute manufacturing
Cotton textiles
Food processing
Steel
Fertilizer


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 8.5% (1995 est.), 6.9% (FY92/93 est.), accounts for 9.4% of GDP

Labor force: 50.1 million
By occupation Agriculture: 65%
By occupation Services: 21%
By occupation Industry and mining: 14% (1989)
By occupation note: Extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $2.8 billion
Expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion (FY92/93)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July_30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $2.7 billion (1995 est.)
$2.38 billion (1993)

Commodities:
Garments
Jute and jute goods
Leather
Shrimp

Partners:
U.S. 33%
Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%) (FY91/92 est.)


Imports
Total value:
$4.7 billion (1995 est.)
$3.99 billion (1993)

Commodities:
Capital goods
Petroleum
Food
Textiles

Partners:
Hong Kong 7.5%
Singapore 7.4%
China 7.4%
Japan 7.1% (FY91/92 est.)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$15.7 billion (1995 est.)
$13.5 billion (June 1993)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Taka (Tk) per US$1_40.933 (January 19,965), 40.278 (1995), 40.212 (1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596 (1991), 34.569 (1990)


Bangladesh - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.2 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 70 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Bangladesh - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 249,800 telephones; poor domestic telephone service
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Bangladesh - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $481 million, 1.7% of GDP (FY95/96; $448 million, 1.7% of GDP (FY93/94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Bangladesh - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 15
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 6 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 6 (1995 est.)

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Natural gas 1,220 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Merchant marine
Total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 296,503 GRT/423,274 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 29, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Bangladesh - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries


Iberostar Hotels


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