Statistical information Bhutan 1996Bhutan

Map of Bhutan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Bhutan in the World
Bhutan in the World

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Bhutan - Introduction 1996
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Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949 with India subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid.


Bhutan - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 47,000 km²
Land: 47,000 km²
Comparative: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: Total 1,075 km, China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: Mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Dangme Chu 97 m
Extremes highest point: Khula Kangri I 7,553 m

Natural resources:
Timber
Hydropower
Gypsum
Calcium carbide

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 5%
Forests and woodland: 70%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: 340 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Bhutan - People 1996
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Population:
1,822,625 (July 1996 est.)
1,780,638 (July 1995 est.)

Note: Other estimates range as low as 600,000
Growth rate:
2.32% (1996 est.)
2.34% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups:
Bhote 50%
Ethnic Nepalese 35%
Indigenous or migrant tribes 15%


Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects; Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Religions:
Lamaistic Buddhism 75%
Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
40% (male 378,407; female 351,146) (July 1996 est.)
40% (male 368,916; female 342,276) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
56% (male 524,972; female 496,715) (July 1996 est.)
56% (male 513,560; female 486,258) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over: 4% (male 36,304; female 35,081) (July 1996 est.) 4% (male 35,413; female 34,215) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.32% (1996 est.)
2.34% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
38.48 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
39.02 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
15.28 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
15.61 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Current issues Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified_Law of the sea
International agreements note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:116.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
118.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 51.46 years (1996 est.); 51.03 years (1995 est.)
Male: 50.93 years (1996 est.); 51.56 years (1995 est.)
Female: 50.93 years (1996 est.); 50.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.33 children born/woman (1996 est.)
5.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 42.2%
Male: 56.2%
Female: 28.1%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Bhutan - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
Conventional short form: Bhutan

Government type: Monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural; Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Dependent areas

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary king)

Constitution: No written constitution or bill of rights

Legal system: Based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: Each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch
Chief of State and Head of Government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde):Nominated by the king
Cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog); appointed by the king

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu):Members serve for three years; seats_(150 total, 105 elected from village constituencies, 12 represent religious bodies, and 33 designated by the king to represent government and other secular interests)

Judicial branch: The Supreme Court of Appeal is the king; High Court, judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Bhutan: Divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Bhutan - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about half of GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links. The industrial sector is small and technologically backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key resources; however, the government limits the number of tourists to 4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare but growth continues to be constrained by the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Growth picked up in 1995 and the country's balance of payments remained strong with comfortable reserves. The cautious fiscal stance planned for FY95/96 suggests continued economic stability in 1996. However, excessive controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
6% (1995 est.)
5% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy products, foodgrains, eggs

Industries:
Cement
Wood products
Processed fruits
Alcoholic beverages
Calcium carbide


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 7.6% (1992 est.), accounts for 18% of GDP; primarily cottage industry and home based handicrafts

Labor force: NA
By occupation Agriculture: 93%
By occupation Services: 5%
By occupation Industry and commerce: 2%
By occupation note: Massive lack of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $52 million
Expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $95 million (FY93/94 est.)
Note: The government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's budget expenditures

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July_30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY94/95 est.)
$66.8 million (f.o.b., FY93/94)

Commodities:
Cardamon
Gypsum
Timber
Handicrafts
Cement
Fruit
Electricity (to India)
Precious stones
Spices

Partners:
India 94%
Bangladesh


Imports
Total value:
$113.6 million (c.i.f., FY94/95 est.)
$97.6 million (c.i.f., FY93/94 est.)

Commodities:
Fuel and lubricants
Grain
Machinery and parts
Vehicles
Fabrics
Rice

Partners:
India 77%
Japan
U.K.
Germany
U.S.


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $141 million (October 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Ngultrum (Nu) per US$1_35.766 (January 1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504 (1990; note_the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee


Bhutan - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.7 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 143 kWh (1993)
Per capita note: Bhutan exports electricity to India

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Bhutan - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 4,620 telephones (1991 est.); domestic telephone service is very poor with very few telephones in use
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international telephone and telegraph service is by land line through India; an earth station was planned (1990)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Bhutan - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Bhutan - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 1

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Bhutan - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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