Statistical information Bosnia and Herzegovina 1996Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina

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Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World
Bosnia and Herzegovina in the World

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Bosnia and Herzegovina - Introduction 1996
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Background: On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining Bosnia's currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR will remain in place until June 1998. A High Representative appointed by the UN Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation, and coordinating activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian conflict began in the spring of 1992 when the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence and the Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation, formed by the Muslims and Croats in March 1994, is one of two entities (the other being the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska) that comprise Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnia and Herzegovina - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 51,233 km²
Land: 51,233 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: Total 1,459 km, Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia; 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain: Mountains and valleys

Extremes lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:
Wood products

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 20%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 25%
Forests and woodland: 36%
Other: 17%

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Bosnia and Herzegovina - People 1996
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Population: 2,656,240 (July 1996 est.) 3,201,823 (July 1995 est.)
Note: All data dealing with population is subject to considerable error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic cleansing
Growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.) -2.84% (1996 est.)

Noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
Adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:
Muslim 38%
Serb 40%
Croat 22% (est.)

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Muslim 40%
Orthodox 31%
Catholic 15%
Protestant 4%
Other 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 20% (male 276,530; female 248,519) (July 1996 est.) 22% (male 370,966; female 337,787) (July 1995 est.)
15-64 years: 68% (male 892,807; female 915,686) (July 1996 est.) 68% (male 1,085,610; female 1,082,357) (July 1995 est.)
65 years and over: 12% (male 133,081; female 189,617) (July 1996 est.) 10% (male 134,111; female 190,992) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.65% (1995 est.) -2.84% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.29 births/1000 population (1995 est.) 6.34 births/1000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.51 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.) 15.92 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate:
2.72 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.) -18.82 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
Current issues Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
All ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:11.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.) 43.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.47 years (1995)
  • 56.11 years (1996)
    Male: 72.75 years (1995) 51.16 years (1996)
    Female: 78.37 years (1995 est.) 61.39 years (1996 est.)

    Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1995 est.) 1 children born/woman (1996 est.)

    Contraceptive prevalence rate

    Drinking water source

    Current health expenditure

    Physicians density

    Hospital bed density

    Sanitation facility access


    Major infectious diseases

    Obesity adult prevalence rate

    Alcohol consumption

    Tobacco use

    Children under the age of 5 years underweight

    Education expenditures

    Literacy: definition:NA

    School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

    Youth unemployment

    Bosnia and Herzegovina - Government 1996
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    Country name
    Conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
    Local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
    Note: under the new constitution initialed in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995, the name of the country will be changed from Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to simply Bosnia and Herzegovina and will be made up of the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb entity now called Republika Srpska

    Government type: Emerging democracy

    Capital: Sarajevo

    Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular_opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac, Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac, Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc, Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak, Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj, Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica, Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar, Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje, Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo, Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza, Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale, Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici, Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla, Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
    Note: administrative reorganization is currently under negotiation with the assistance of international mediators; spellings not yet approved by the US Board on Geographic Names

    Dependent areas

    Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

    National holiday: NA

    Constitution: first promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists), amended 1989, 1990, and 1991; constitution of Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ratified April 1994; under the Dayton Agreement signed 21 November 1995, the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Serb republic government agreed to accept new basic principles in their constitutions

    Legal system: Based on civil law system

    International law organization participation


    Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

    Executive branch
    Chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990),
    Elections: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC was elected by a collective sevenmember presidency of which he is a member; other members of the collective presidency are Ejup GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October 1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992); the collective presidency is elected from among the National Assembly with at least two members drawn from each of the three main ethnic groups
    Head of government: Prime Minister Haris SILAJDZIC (since NA October 1993) (Re-elected 30 january 1996 by the collective presidency and the National Assembly)
    Cabinet: there is an executive body of ministers with no formal name who are members of, and responsible to, the National Assembly
    Note: the president of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Kresimir ZUBAK (since 31 May 1994); Vice President Ejup GANIC (since 31 May 1994); elections held on 22 and 23 november 1997

    Legislative branch: Bicameral National Assembly Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina):elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats_(110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1 Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo):Elections last held November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA; seats_(130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, LBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1
    Note: the new constitution signed as part of the Dayton agreement on 21 November 1995 provides for a new bicameral Parliamentary assembly which will consist of a House of Peoples with 15 delegates, two-thirds from the Muslim/Croat Federation and one-third from the Serbian republic, and a House of Representatives with 42 members, two-thirds from the Muslim/Croat Federation and one-third from the Serbian republic; elections are scheduled to be held six to nine months after the entry into force of the Dayton Agreement

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

    Political parties and leaders

    International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, INTELSAT (nonsignatory user), INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

    Diplomatic representation

    Flag descriptionflag of Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina:
    A wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle.
    The old flag of Bosnia-Herzegovina was white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white Roman crosses with a white diagonal band running from the upper hoist corner to the lower fly side.

    National symbols

    National anthem

    National heritage

    Bosnia and Herzegovina - Economy 1996
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    Economy overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No economic statistics for 1992-95 are available, although output clearly has fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years and almost certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country receives substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the international community.

    Real gdp purchasing power parity

    Real gdp growth rate: NA

    Real gdp per capita ppp

    Gross national saving
    Gdp composition by sector of origin

    Gdp composition by end use

    Gdp composition by sector of origin

    Agriculture products: Accounted for 9.0% of GDP in 1989; regularly produces less than 50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards, vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive (1991)

    Steel production
    Mining (coal
    Iron ore
    And bauxite)
    Manufacturing (vehicle assembly
    Tobacco products
    Wooden furniture
    40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and aircraft assembly
    Domestic appliances)
    Oil refining (1991)
    much of capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

    Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate NA; production is sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-94)

    Labor force: 1,026,254
    By occupation: NA
    Labor force

    Unemployment rate: NA

    Youth unemployment

    Population below poverty line

    Gini index

    Household income or consumption by percentage share

    Distribution of family income gini index

    Revenues: NA
    Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

    Public debt

    Taxes and other revenues


    Fiscal year: Calendar year

    Current account balance

    Inflation rate consumer prices

    Central bank discount rate

    Commercial bank prime lending rate

    Stock of narrow money

    Stock of broad money

    Stock of domestic credit

    Market value of publicly traded shares

    Current account balance

    Exports: total value. NA
    Commodities: NA
    Partners: NA

    Imports: total value:NA
    Commodities: NA
    Partners: NA

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

    Debt external: NA

    Stock of direct foreign investment at home

    Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

    Exchange rates: NA

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    Electricity access

    Electricity production: NA kWh

    Electricity consumption
    Per capita: NA kWh (1993)

    Electricity exports

    Electricity imports

    Electricity installed generating capacity

    Electricity transmission distribution losses

    Electricity generation sources


    Refined petroleum

    Natural gas

    Carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy consumption per capita

    Bosnia and Herzegovina - Communication 1996
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    Telephones fixed lines

    Telephones mobile cellular

    Telephone system: 727,000 telephones; telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
    Local: NA
    Intercity: NA
    International: no earth stations

    Broadcast media

    Internet country code

    Internet users

    Broadband fixed subscriptions

    Bosnia and Herzegovina - Military 1996
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    Military expenditures

    Military and security forces

    Military service age and obligation

    Terrorist groups

    Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transportation 1996
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    National air transport system

    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

    Airports: 27
    2438 to 3047 m: 3
    15-24 to 2437 m: 1
    With paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
    Under 914 m: 7
    914 to 1523 m: 9 (1995 est.)

    Airports with paved runways
    914 to 1 523 m: 1

    Airports with unpaved runways


    Pipelines: Crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992; note_pipelines now disrupted



    Waterways: NA km

    Merchant marine: None

    Ports and terminals

    Bosnia and Herzegovina - Transnational issues 1996
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    Disputes international

    Refugees and internally displaced persons

    Illicit drugs: NA


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