Statistical information Brazil 1996Brazil

Map of Brazil | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Brazil in the World
Brazil in the World

Qatar Airways

Brazil - Introduction 1996
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Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and most populous country in South America Brazil has overcome more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the 1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

Brazil - Geography 1996
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Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 8,511,965 km²
Land: 8,456,510 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than the U.S.
Comparative note: Includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Land boundaries: Total 14,691 km, Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: Mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources:
Iron ore

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 19%
Forests and woodland: 67%
Other: 6%

Irrigated land: 27,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Brazil - People 1996
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162,661,214 (July 1996 est.)
160,737,489 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.16% (1996 est.)
1.22% (1995 est.)

Noun: Brazilian(s)
Adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups:
Caucasion (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish) 55%
Mixed Caucasion and African 38%
African 6%
Other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
31% (male 25,286,278; female 24,422,897) (July 1996 est.)
31% (male 25,515,775; female 24,641,868) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
65% (male 52,232,435; female 53,094,724) (July 1996 est.)
64% (male 51,254,165; female 51,966,272) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
4% (male 3,072,720; female 4,552,160) (July 1996 est.)
5% (male 2,965,879; female 4,393,530) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.16% (1996 est.)
1.22% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
20.8 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
21.16 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
9.19 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
8.98 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
Current issues Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
International agreements: party to_Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified_Desertification
International agreements note: Largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:55.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
57.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 61.62 years (1996 est.); 61.82 years (1995 est.)
Male: 56.67 years (1996 est.); 56.57 years (1995 est.)
Female: 66.81 years (1996 est.); 67.32 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.34 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.39 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 83.3%
Male: 83.3%
Female: 83.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Brazil - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
Conventional short form: Brazil
Local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
Local short form: Brasil

Government type: Federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular_estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal; Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Dependent areas

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: Based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: Voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995) was elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 3 October 1994; (next to be held October 1998); results_Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note_second direct presidential election since 1960; Vice President Marco MARCIEL (since NA)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) Federal Senate (Senado Federal):Election last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1996 for one-third of the Senate; results_PMBD 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12% Chamber of Deputies (Camara Dos Deputados):Election last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held October 1998; results_PMDB 21%, PFL 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MTCR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Brazil: Green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Brazil - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: With its large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil has South America's largest GDP by far and has the potential to become a major player in the world economy. Prior to the institution of a stabilization plan in mid-1994, stratospheric inflation rates had devastated the economy and discouraged foreign investment. Since then, tight monetary policy has apparently brought inflation under control_consumer prices increased by 23% in 1995 compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP growth slowed from 5.7% to 4.2% as credit was tightened and the steadily appreciating real encouraged imports while depressing export growth. The increased stability of the Brazilian economy allowed it to weather the fallout from the Mexican peso crisis relatively well, with foreign funds flowing in during the second half of 1995 to swell official foreign exchange reserves past the $50 billion mark. Stock market indices in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, however, ended 26% lower in 1995. President CARDOSO remains committed to further reducing inflation in 1996 while boosting growth, but he faces key challenges. Servicing domestic debt has become dramatically more burdensome for both public and private sector entities because of very high real interest rates which are contributing to growing budget deficits and a surge in bankruptcies. Fiscal reforms, many of which require constitutional amendments, are proceeding at a slow pace through the Brazilian legislature; in their absence, the government is maintaining its strict monetary policy. Brazil's natural resources remain a major, long-run economic strength.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
4.2% (1995)
5.3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 16% of GDP; world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of soybeans; other products_rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

Mining (iron ore
Steel making
Machine building_including aircraft
Motor vehicles
Motor vehicle parts and assemblies
And other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 3.5% (1995 est.), 9.5% (1993; accounts for 25% of GDP

Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.)
By occupation Services: 42%
By occupation Agriculture: 31%
By occupation Industry: 27%
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
5% (1995 est.)
4.9% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $58.7 billion (1994); $113 billion (1992)
Expenditures: $54.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1994); $109 billion, including capital expenditures of $23 billion (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $46.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
$43.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Iron ore
Soybean bran
Orange juice
Motor vehicle parts

EU 27.6%
Latin America 21.8%
U.S. 17.4%
Japan 6.3% (1993)

Total value:
$49.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
$33.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Crude oil
Capital goods
Chemical products

U.S. 23.3%
EU 22.5%
Middle East 13.0%
Latin America 11.8%
Japan 6.5% (1993)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$94 billion (1995 est.)
$134 billion (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1_0.975 (January 1996), 0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1_390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992), 0.407 (1991), 0.068 (1990)
Note: On 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real, was introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reals

Brazil - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 241.4 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,589 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Brazil - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 14,426,673 telephones (1992 est.); good working system
Local: NA
Intercity: extensive microwave radio relay systems and 64 domestic satellite earth stations
International: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations_3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region East)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Brazil - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $5.0 billion, 0.9% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Brazil - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 2,950
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 19
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 66
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1,145 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 1,298

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 19
15-24 to 2437 m: 66
914 to 1523 m: 1,145 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 1,298

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km



Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Merchant marine
Total: 207 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,108,543 GRT/8,477,760 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 29, chemical tanker 11, combination ore/oil 12, container 14, liquefied gas tanker 11, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 64, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Brazil - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of cannabis, coca cultivation in the Amazon region has diminished in recent years because of its low alkaloid content, mostly for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe


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