Statistical information Burundi 1996Burundi

Map of Burundi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Burundi in the World
Burundi in the World


Burundi - Introduction 1996
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Background: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire; since October 1996, an estimated 92,000 Burundi Hutus who fled to Zaire have been forced to return to Burundi by Tutsi rebel forces in Zaire, leaving an estimated 35,000 still dispersed there; in Burundi, the ethnic violence between the Hutus and the Tutsis continued in 1996, causing an estimated additional 150,000 Burundi Hutus to flee to Tanzania, thus raising their numbers in that country to about 250,000

Burundi - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic Congo

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 27,830 km²
Land: 25,650 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: Total 974 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Democratic Republic Congo 233 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands; dry season from June to September

Terrain: Hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains

Extremes lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources:
Rare earth oxide
Platinum (not yet exploited)

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 8%
Permanent pastures: 35%
Forests and woodland: 2%
Other: 12%

Irrigated land: 720 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Burundi - People 1996
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5,943,057 (July 1996 est.)
6,262,429 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.54% (1996 est.)
2.18% (1995 est.)

Noun: Burundian(s)
Adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups
Africans: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
NonAfricans: Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%
Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 32%
Muslim 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
47% (male 1,404,375; female 1,398,228)
48% (male 1,494,730; female 1,489,721)

15-64 years:
50% (male 1,454,545; female 1,527,644)
50% (male 1,498,021; female 1,606,307)

65 years and over:
3% (male 62,955; female 95,310) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 68,204; female 105,446) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.54% (1996 est.)
2.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
43.02 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
43.35 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
15.15 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
21.51 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.47 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
Note: In a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of thousands of refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Democratic Republic Congo; the refugee flows were continuing in 1996 as the ethnic violence persisted

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Current issues Natural hazards: flooding, landslides
International agreements: party to_Endangered Species; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
International agreements note: Landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:102.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
111.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 49.33 years (1996 est.), 39.86 years (1995 est.)
Male: 48.28 years (1996 est.), 37.84 years (1995 est.)
Female: 50.42 years (1996 est.), 41.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)
6.63 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 35.5%
Male: 49.3%
Female: 22.5%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Burundi - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
Conventional short form: Burundi
Local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
Local short form: Burundi

Government type: Republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural political system

Legal system: Based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: Universal adult at age NA

Executive branch: chief of state:President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA (acting president from 8 April 1994 to 30 September 1994, president since 1 October 1994); note_NTIBANTUNGANYA, in his capacity as President of the National Assembly, became acting president upon the death of President Cyprien NTARYAMIRE in an airplane crash on 6 April 1994; NTIBANTUNGANYA was sworn in on 1 October 1994 as president by the "Convention on Government" to serve a four year transitional term
Note: President Melchior NDADAYE, Burundi's first democratically elected president, died in the military coup of 21 October 1993 and was succeeded on 5 February 1994 by President Cyprien NTARYAMIRA, who was killed in a mysterious airplane explosion on 6 April 1994
Head of government: Prime Minister Antoine NDUWAYO (since February 1995)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):Elections last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA); results_FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%; seats_(81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly
Note: The National Unity Charter outlining the principles for constitutional government was adopted by a national referendum on 5 February 1991

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Burundi: Divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Burundi - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage of economic development. The economy is predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of perhaps 100,000 persons and the displacement of a million others; production has fallen sharply, and an impoverished and disorganized government can hardly implement these needed reform programs.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.7% (1995 est.)
-13.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 50% of GDP; cash crops_coffee, cotton, tea; food crops_corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc; livestock_meat, milk, hides and skins

Light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap
Assembly of imported components
Public works construction
Food processing

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 11% (1991 est.), accounts for about 15% of GDP

Labor force: 1.9 million (1983 est.)
By occupation Agriculture: 93.0%
By occupation Government: 4.0%
By occupation Industry and commerce: 1.5%
By occupation Services: 1.5%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $318 million
Expenditures: $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $68 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Coffee 81%
And skins

EU 57%
U.S. 19%
Asia 1%

Imports: total value:$203 million (c.i.f., 1993)
Capital goods 31%
Petroleum products 15%
Consumer goods

EU 45%
Asia 29%
U.S. 2%

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.05 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1_268.13 (November 1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51 (1991), 171.26 (1990), 158.67 (1989), 140.40 (1988)

Burundi - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 100 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 20 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Burundi - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 7,200 telephones (1987 est.); primative system
Local: NA
Intercity: sparse system of wire, radiocommunications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay links
International: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Burundi - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $25 million, 2.6% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Burundi - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 3
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 2

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Burundi - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Sightseeing Pass

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