Statistical information Canada 1996Canada

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Canada - Introduction 1996
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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, from 1867 on Canada has enjoyed de facto independence while retaining, even to the present day, certain formal ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.


Canada - Geography 1996
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Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous U.S.

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 9,976,140 km²
Land: 9,220,970 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than U.S.

Land boundaries: Total 8,893 km, U.S. 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrain: Mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources:
Nickel
Zinc
Copper
Gold
Lead
Molybdenum
Potash
Silver
Fish
Timber
Wildlife
Coal
Petroleum
Natural gas

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 5%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 3%
Forests and woodland: 35%
Other: 57%

Irrigated land: 8,400 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Canada - People 1996
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Population: 28,820,671 (July 1996 est.) 28,434,545 (July 1995 est.)
Growth rate:
1.06% (1996 est.)
1.09% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Canadian(s)
Adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups:
British Isles origin 40%
French origin 27%
Other European 20%
Indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%


LanguagesEnglish (official), French (official)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 46%
United Church 16%
Anglican 10%
Other 28%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
21% (male 3,032,458; female 2,889,603) (July 1996 est.)
21% (male 3,016,050; female 2,874,705) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
67% (male 9,663,955; female 9,660,648) (July 1996 est.)
67% (male 9,531,107; female 9,529,272) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
12% (male 1,501,542; female 2,072,465) (July 1996 est.)
12% (female 2,022,324; male 1,461,087) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.06% (1996 est.)
1.09% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
13.33 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
13.74 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
7.17 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.43 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
4.47 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
4.55 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Current issues Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and U.S. via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated in the region near the US/Canada border

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:6.1 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
6.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 79.07 years (1996 est.), 78.29 years (1995 est.)
Male: 75.67 years (1996 est.), 74.93 years (1995 est.)
Female: 82.65 years (1996 est.), 81.81 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.83 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1986)
Total population: 97%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Canada - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Canada

Government type: Confederation with parliamentary democracy

CapitalOttawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: Amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: Based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
Head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November 1993) was appointed by the governor general; on 25 October 1993; Deputy Prime Minister Sheila COPPS (since NA); note_the prime minister is the leader of the political party commanding a majority in the House of Commons
Cabinet: Federal Ministry; chosen by the prime minister from members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament (Parlement) Senate (Senat):Consisting of a body whose members are appointed to serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit 104 senators House of Commons (Chambre Des Communes):Elections last held 25 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998; results_percent of votes by party NA; seats_(295 total) Liberal Party 178, Bloc Quebecois 54, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive Conservative Party 2, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Canada: Three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Canada - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output, market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high unemployment and a large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the confederation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.1% (1995 est.)
4.5% (1994)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for about 3% of GDP; one of the world's major producers and exporters of grain (wheat and barley; key source of U.S. agricultural imports; large forest resources cover 35% of total land area; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Industries:
Processed and unprocessed minerals
Food products
Wood and paper products
Transportation equipment
Chemicals
Fish products
Petroleum and natural gas


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 5.9% (1994), 4.8% (1993)

Labor force: 13.38 million
By occupation Services: 75%
By occupation Manufacturing: 14%
By occupation Agriculture: 4%
By occupation Construction: 3%
By occupation Other: 4% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
9.5% (1995)
9.6% (December 1994)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $90.4 billion (FY94/95 est), $85 billion (Federal) (FY93/94 est.)
Expenditures: $114.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY94/95 est.), $115.3 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY93/94 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $185 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$164.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Newsprint
Wood pulp
Timber
Crude petroleum
Machinery
Natural gas
Aluminum
Motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment

Partners:
U.S.
Japan
U.K.
Germany
South Korea
Netherlands
China


Imports
Total value:
$166.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
$151.5 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Crude oil
Chemicals
Motor vehicles and parts
Durable consumer goods
Electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and parts

Partners:
U.S.
Japan
U.K.
Germany
France
Mexico
Taiwan
South Korea


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$233 billion (1994)
$243 billion (1993)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Canada - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 511 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Canada - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 15.3 million telephones (1990); excellent service provided by modern technology
Local: NA
Intercity: about 300 earth stations for domestic satellite communications
International: 5 coaxial submarine cables; 5 INTELSAT earth stations (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Canada - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $9.0 billion, 1.6% of GDP (FY95/96)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Canada - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 1,138
With paved runways over 3047 m: 17
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 53
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m:
269 (1995 est.)
Heliports 14 (1995 est.)

With paved runways under 914 m: 422

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 17
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 53
914 to 1523 m:
269 (1995 est.)
Heliports 14 (1995 est.)

Under 914 m: 422

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Merchant marine
Total: 62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 573,089 GRT/804,436 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 15, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
Note: Does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes

Ports and terminals


Canada - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the U.S. market


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