Statistical information Chad 1996Chad

Map of Chad | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Chad in the World
Chad in the World


Chad - Introduction 1996
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Background: After enduring decades of civil warfare among ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, Chad got started toward a more stable state with the seizure of the government in early December 1990 by former northern guerrilla leader Idress DEBY. His transitional government eventually suppressed armed rebellion in all quarters of the country, settled the territorial dispute with Libya on terms favorable to Chad, produced a democratic constitution which was ratified by popular referendum in March 1996, held multiparty national presidential elections in June and July 1996 (DEBY won with 67% of the vote).

Chad - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1.284 million km²
Land: 1,259,200 km²
Comparative: slightly more than three times the size of California

Land boundaries: Total 5,968 km, Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: Broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south

Extremes lowest point: Djourab Depression 175 m
Extremes highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources:
Petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way)
Fish (Lake Chad)

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 36%
Forests and woodland: 11%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 100 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Chad - People 1996
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6,976,845 (July 1996 est.)
5,586,505 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.68% (1996 est.)
2.18% (1995 est.)

Noun: Chadian(s)
Adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
North and center: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
South: non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa)

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sango (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects are spoken

Muslim 50%
Christian 25%
Indigenous beliefs, animism 25%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
44% (male 1,543,688; female 1,535,729) (July 1996 est.)
44% (male 1,267,470; female 1,198,619) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
53% (male 1,807,361; female 1,881,930) (July 1996 est.)
54% (male 1,456,481; female 1,563,678) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 91,998; female 116,139) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 28,286; female 71,971) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.68% (1996 est.)
2.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
44.25 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
42.05 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
17.44 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
20.26 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Current issues Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
International agreements note: Landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:120.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
129.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 47.55 years (1996 est.), 41.19 years (1995 est.)
Male: 45.18 years (1996 est.), 40.04 years (1995 est.)
Female: 50.01 years (1996 est.), 42.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.84 children born/woman (1996 est.)
5.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write in French and Arabic (1995 est.)
Total population: 48.1%
Male: 62.1%
Female: 34.7%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Chad - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Chad
Conventional short form: Chad
Local long form: Republique du Tchad
Local short form: Tchad

Government type: Republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular_prefecture; Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Dependent areas

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: Based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: Universal at age NA

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990, after seizing power on 3 December 1990); note_transitional government's mandate was scheduled to expire in May 1996; the first round of presidential elections was scheduled for 2 June 1996, with a runoff on 23 June if necessary
Head of government: Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April 1995)
Cabinet: Council of State; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Consultative Council (Conceil National Consultatif):Popular elections to the former National Consultative Council (Conceil National Consultatif) were last held 8 July 1990; this body was disbanded on 3 December 1990 by President DEBY and on 8 March 1991 replaced with the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30 members whom he appointed; this body, in turn, was replaced on 6 April 1993 by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign National Conference; popular elections, formerly scheduled for April 1995, were initially postponed by mutual agreement of the parties concerned until at least May 1996 and subsequently postponed until after the rainy season (as late as October 1996; note_the name of the anticipated new legislative body has not been announced

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Chad: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Chad - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by political turmoil, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. More than 80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. Of all the Francophone countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an increase in external financial aid and favorable price increases for cotton_the primary source of foreign exchange_the corrupt and enfeebled government bureaucracy continues to postpone payment of public sector salaries and to dampen economic enterprise by neglecting payments to domestic suppliers. The devaluation resulted in stepped-up inflation of 41% in 1994; in contrast to other Francophone countries, Chad continued to suffer high inflation in 1995 because of the government's lack of financial discipline. Oil production in the Lake Chad area remains a distant prospect and the subsistence-driven economy probably will continue to limp along in the near term.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
4% (1994 est.)
3.5% (1993 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc; livestock_cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient in food in years of adequate rainfall

Cotton textile mills
Natron (sodium carbonate)

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 2.7% (1992 est.), accounts for nearly 15% of GDP

Labor force: NA
By occupation agriculture: 85% (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding and fishing)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $120 million
Expenditures: $363 million, including capital expenditures of $104 million (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $132 million (f.o.b., 1993)
$190 million (f.o.b., 1992)


Democratic Republic Congo
Central African Republic

Total value:
$201 million (f.o.b., 1993)
$261 million (f.o.b., 1992)

Machinery and transportation equipment 39%
Industrial goods 20%
Petroleum products 13%
Foodstuffs 9%

Commodities note: excludes military equipment

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$757 million (December 1993 )
$492 million (December 1990 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1_500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
Note: Beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Chad - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 80 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 13 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Chad - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 5,000 telephones (1987 est.); primitive system
Local: NA
Intercity: fair system of radio communication stations for intercity links
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Chad - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $74 million, 11.1% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Chad - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 47
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
Under 914 m: 11
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 18 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Chad - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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