Statistical information Comoros 1996Comoros

Map of Comoros | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Comoros in the World
Comoros in the World

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Comoros - Introduction 1996
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Background: Comoros has had difficulty in achieving political stability, having endured 18 coups or attempted coups since receiving independence from France in 1975.


Comoros - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 2,170 km²
Land: 2,170 km²
Comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: Volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Mount Kartala 2,360 m

Elevation

Natural resources: Negligible
Land use

Land use
Arable land: 35%
Permanent crops: 8%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 16%
Other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Comoros - People 1996
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Population:
569,237 (July 1996 est.)
549,338 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
3.55% (1996 est.)
3.56% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Comoran(s)
Adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)

Religions:
Sunni Muslim 86%
Roman Catholic 14%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
48% (male 137,235; female 136,207) (July 1996 est.)
48% (male 132,327; female 131,334) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
49% (male 138,447; female 142,058) (July 1996 est.)
49% (male 133,629; female 137,083) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 7,242; female 8,048) (July 1996 est.)
3% (male 7,105; female 7,860) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
3.55% (1996 est.)
3.56% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
45.82 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
46.22 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
10.28 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
10.6 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Current issues Natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season (December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Desertification
International agreements note: Important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:75.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
77.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 58.7 years (1996 est.), 58.27 years (1995 est.)
Male: 56.43 years 91,996 est.), 56.04 years (1995 est.)
Female: 61.05 years (1996 es.), 60.57 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)
6.73 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 57.3%
Male: 64.2%
Female: 50.4%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Comoros - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
Conventional short form: Comoros
Local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
Local short form: Comores

Government type: Independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: Three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja), Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
Note: There are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 7 June 1992

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (since 16 March 1996) was elected by popular vote; election last held 16 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001)
11 march 1990 16 march 1996: President Said Mohamed DJOHAR
Head of government: Prime Minister MASSOUNDI Tadjidine Ben Said (since March 1996) was appointed by the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale):Elections last held 12-20 December 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1998; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(42 total) ruling coalition:RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; opposition:UDZIMA 8; other smaller parties:10; two seats remained unfilled

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), two members are appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal Assembly, one by the Council of each island, plus all the former presidents of the republic

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL, CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Comoros: Green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its points facing away from the hoist side; there are four white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago_Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed by Comoros; the design, the most recent of several, is used since 3 october 1996

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Comoros - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is to be reached in the late 1990s.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 0.9% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for export_vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra; principal food crops_coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large net food importer

Industries:
Perfume distillation
Textiles
Furniture
Jewelry
Construction materials
Soft drinks


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -6.5% (1989 est.), accounts for 6% of GDP

Labor force: 140,000 (1982)
By occupation Agriculture: 80%
By occupation Government: 3%
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1989)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $83 million
Expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32 million (1992)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $13.7 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities:
Vanilla
Ylang-ylang
Cloves
Perfume oil
Copra

Partners:
U.S. 44%
France 40%
Germany 6%
Africa 5% (1992)


Imports: total value:$40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Commodities:
Rice and other foodstuffs
Petroleum products
Cement
Consumer goods

Partners:
France 34%
South Africa 14%
Kenya 8%
Japan 4% (1992)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $160 million (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1_375.42 (January 1996), 374.36 (1995), 416.40 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
Note: On 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75 per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed since 1948


Comoros - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 17 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 27 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Comoros - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 3,770 telephones (1991 est.); sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio communication stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar and Réunion
Local: NA
Intercity: high frequency radio and microwave radio relay
International: high frequency radio

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Comoros - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Comoros - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 3

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine: None

Ports and terminals


Comoros - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Sightseeing Pass


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