Statistical information Cyprus 1996Cyprus

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Cyprus - Introduction 1996
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Background: Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish Cypriot minority. In 1974 a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey which soon controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983 the Turkish-held area declared itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but it is recognized only by Turkey.


Cyprus - Geography 1996
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Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterreanean Sea, south of Turkey

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total:
$968 million (f.o.b., 1994)
$868 million (f.o.b., 1993)

Note: 3,355 km² are in the Turkish area
Land: 9,240 km²
Comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters

Terrain: Central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources:
Copper
Pyrites
Asbestos
Gypsum
Timber
Salt
Marble
Clay earth pigment

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 40%
Permanent crops: 7%
Permanent pastures: 10%
Forests and woodland: 18%
Other: 25%

Irrigated land: 350 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Cyprus - People 1996
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Population: total:744,609 (July 1996 est.), 736,636 (July 1995 est.) (78% Greek, 18% Turk, 4% other) Greek area: 602,656 (July 1995 est.) (94.9% Greek, 0.3% Turk, 4.8% other) Turkish area: 133,980 (July 1995 est.) (2.1% Greek, 97.7% Turk, 0.2% other)
Growth rate:
1.11% (1996 est.)
0.88% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Cypriot(s)
Adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: total:Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Religions:
Greek Orthodox 78%
Muslim 18%
Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other 4%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
25% (male 97,400; female 92,110) (July 1996 est.)
26% (male 97,723; female 92,179) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
64% (male 240,716; female 238,039) (July 1996 est.)
64% (male 236,693; female 234,929) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
11% (male 33,340; female 43,004) (July 1996 est.)
10% (male 32,922; female 42,190) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.11% (1996 est.)
0.88% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
15.39 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
16.27 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
7.66 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.48 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
3.38 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable resources concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
Current issues Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity, Climate Change

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
All ages:
1 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:8.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
8.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 76.26 years (1996 est.), 76.47 years (1995 est.)
Male: 74.11 years (1996 est.), 74.19 years (1995 est.)
Female: 78.52 years (1996 est.), 78.85 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.19 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.3 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1987 est.)
Total population: 94%
Male: 98%
Female: 91%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Cyprus - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
Conventional short form: Cyprus
Note: The Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" Abbreviation:The Turkish area is sometimes referred to as the TRNC which is short for "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"

Government type: Republic
Note: A disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia
Note: The Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note_Turkish area administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from U.K.)
Note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
Note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: Based on common law, with civil law modifications

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Giorgios IAKOVOU (since 8 February 1998); election last held 8 February 1998 (next to be held February 2003); results_Glafkos CLERIDES 39.6%, Giorgios IAKOVOU 41.0%
28 February 1993 8 February 1998: President Glafcos CLERIDES
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed jointly by the president and vice-president
Note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been president of the Turkish area since 13 February 1975; Hakki ATUN has been prime minister of the Turkish area since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held April 2000); results_Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%

Legislative branch: Unicameral Greek area: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon):elections last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held NA; results_DISY 35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%; seats_(56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7 Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi):elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA; results_UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats_(50 total) UBP (conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note_there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Cyprus: White with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
Note: The Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Cyprus - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous, but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 25% to GDP and employs 26% of the labor force, while the service sector contributes 70% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. After surging 9.7% in 1992, economic growth slowed to 1.6% in 1993_its lowest level in two decades_because of the decline in tourist arrivals associated with the recession in Western Europe, Cyprus' main trading partner, and the loss in export competitiveness due to a sharp rise in unit labor costs. However, real GDP picked up in 1994 and 1995, as inflation fell from 4.7% to about 3%. Economic prospects appear favorable for 1996:real GDP is likely to grow between 3% and 4%, and inflation is likely to rise slightly to 3.5%-4.5%. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover, the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal tender. Economic growth sharply dropped during 1994 because of the severe economic crisis affecting the mainland, and inflation soared to 215%. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support has risen and now equals in value about one-third of Turkish Cypriot GDP.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate
Greek area total:
2.5% (1997)
5% (1995 est.)

5 1994 est. Turkish area total:
0.5% (1995 est.)
-4% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Contributes 5.6% to GDP (Greek Area; 11.4% (turkish Area) and employs 12.5% (Greek Area; 23.5% (turkish Area) of labor force; major crops_potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus fruits; vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

Industries:
Food
Beverages
Textiles
Chemicals
Metal products
Tourism
Wood products


Industrial production growth rate: Greek area: Growth rate 3.7% (1994; 0.1% (1993; accounts for 24.9% of GDP Industrial Production Turkish area: Growth rate 2.6% (1992; accounts for 22.9% of GDP

Labor force: Greek area: 294,100
By occupation services: 52.9%
By occupation industry: 23.6%
By occupation agriculture: 23.5% (Greek area 1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: Greek

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: Greek area: $2.3 billion (1996 est.); $1.8 billion (1995 est.) Turkish area: $246 million (1996 est.); $285 million (1995 est.)
Expenditures: Greek area: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $500 million (1996 est.); $2.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $400 million (1995 est.) Turkish area: $350 million, including capital expenditures of $75 million (1996 est.); $377 million, including capital expenditures of $80 million (1995 est.) Exports Greek

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports
Commodities:
Citrus
Potatoes
Grapes
Wine
Cement
Clothing and shoes

Partners:
U.K. 16%
Greece 8%
Lebanon 9%

Partners Germany 12 Exports Turkish area total: $59 million (f.o.b., 1994)

Imports
Commodities:
Food
Minerals
Chemicals
Machinery

Partners: U.K. 19%
Partners Turkey 22 Imports Greek area total:
$2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
$2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1993)

Partners U.S. 8 Imports Turkish area total: $330 million (f.o.b., 1994)
Partners Turkey 48 External Debt Greek area total:
$1.4 billion (1994)
$2.4 billion (1993)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates:
Cypriot pounds per $US1_0.4628 (January 1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4633 (1991), 0.4572 (1990)
Turkish liras (TL) per US$1_60,502.1 (January 1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991), 2,608.6 (1990)



Cyprus - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Cyprus - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 331,000 telephones; excellent in both the area controlled by the Cypriot Government (Greek area), and in the Turkish-Cypriot administered area; largely open-wire and microwave radio relay
DDomestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
International: international service by tropospheric scatter, 3 submarine cables; 3 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 EUTELSAT, 2 Intersputnik and 1 Arabsat earth station Greek Sector:
Broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 0

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Cyprus - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $493 million, 5.6% of GDP (1995)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Cyprus - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 15
2438 to 3047 m: 8
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 3

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 4 (1995 est.)

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 1,524 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,949,242 GRT/40,236,638 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 490, cargo 562, chemical tanker 27, combination bulk 53, combination ore/oil 22, container 115, liquefied gas tanker 3, multifunction large-load carrier 4, oil tanker 129, passenger 6, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 62, roll-on/roll-off cargo 28, short-sea passenger 17, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 2
Note: A flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 48 countries among which are Greece 706, Germany 171, Russia 44, Netherlands 31, Belgium 30, Japan 29, Cuba 21, UK 17, Spain 14, and Hong Kong 13 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Cyprus - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transit point for heroin via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey


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