Statistical information Czech Republic 1996Czech%20Republic

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Czech Republic in the World

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Czech Republic - Introduction 1996
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Background: Once part of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Czechoslovakia became an independent nation at the end of World War I. Independence ended with the German takeover in 1939. After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence, and in 1968 an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops snuffed out anti-communist demonstrations and riots. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1991, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom. On 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into its two ethnic components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic, largely by aspiring to become a NATO and EU member, has moved toward integration in world markets, a development that poses both opportunities and risks. But Prague has had a difficult time convincing the public that membership in NATO is crucial to Czech security. At the same time, support for eventual EU membership is waning. Coupled with the country's worsening economic situation, Prague's political scene, troubled for the past three years, will remain so for the foreseeable future.


Czech Republic - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 78,703 km²
Land: 78,645 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: Total 1,880 km, Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 214 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Two main regions:Bohemia in the west, consisting of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; and Moravia in the east, consisting of very hilly country

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
Extremes highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:
Hard coal
Soft coal
Kaolin
Clay
Graphite

Land use

Land use
Arable land: NA
Permanent crops: NA
Permanent pastures: NA
Forests and woodland: NA
Other: NA

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Czech Republic - People 1996
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Population:
10,321,120 (July 1996 est.)
10,432,774 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
-0.03% (1996 est.)
0.26% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Czech(s)
Adjective: Czech
Note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups:
Czech 94.4%
Slovak 3%
Polish 0.6%
German 0.5%
Gypsy 0.3%
Hungarian 0.2%
Other 1%


Languages: Czech, Slovak

Religions:
Atheist 39.8%
Roman Catholic 39.2%
Protestant 4.6%
Orthodox 3%
Other 13.4%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
18% (male 965,861; female 918,745) (July 1996 est.)
19% (male 1,030,003; female 981,918) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
68% (male 3,519,753; female 3,524,913) (July 1996 est.)
68% (male 3,530,112; female 3,529,411) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
14% (male 526,841; female 865,007) (July 1996 est.)
13% (male 512,731; female 848,599) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-0.03% (1996 est.)
0.26% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
10.39 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
13.46 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
10.89 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
10.85 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0.24 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia centered around Zeplica and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:8.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
8.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 73.76 years (1996 est.), 73.54 years (1995 est.)
Male: 70.08 years (1996 est.), 69.87 years (1995 est.)
Female: 77.65 years (1996 est.), 77.41 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.38 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.84 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: Can read and write
Total population: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Czech Republic - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Czech Republic
Conventional short form: Czech Republic
Local long form: Ceska Republika
Local short form: Cechy

Government type: Parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj_singular; Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky, Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 May; Founding of the Republic, 28 October

Constitution: Ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: Civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993); election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003); results_Vaclav HAVEL reelected by the National Council (99 votes of the 200-member Chamber of Deputies and 47 votes of the 81-member Senate)
Head of government: Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK, Josef LUX, Jan KALVODA (since NA June 1992)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch
Bicameral National Council Narodni rada Senate: elections to be held 15-16 November 1996 (next to be held NA); seats (81 total) Chamber of Deputies:Elections last held 20_21 June 1998 (next to be held NA 2002); results_percent of vote by party:CSSD 32.3, ODS 27.7, Communists 11, KDU-CSL 9, US 8.6; seats_(200 Total) Governing Coalition:(1992) ODS 27.7, KDS 10, ODA 16, KDU-CSL 15,
Opposition: (1992) CSSD 32.3, LB 25, KSCM 10, LSU 9, LSNS 5, CMSS 9, SPR-RSC 6, independents 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Czech%20Republic: Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Czech Republic - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The Czech Republic, which separated from Slovakia on 1 January 1993, emerged from recession with 2.6% growth in 1994 and 5% growth in 1995. Inflation in 1994-95 was cut in half; unemployment was kept at about 3%; the budget was balanced; and exports were reoriented to the EU. Prague's mass privatization program, including its innovative distribution of ownership shares to Czech citizens via "coupon vouchers," has made the most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. About 80% of the economy is wholly or partially in private hands. Because of its progress on reform, the Czech Republic in 1995 became the first post-Communist member of the OECD. Its solid economic performance also led Standard and Poor's to upgrade the country's sovereign credit rating to "A" and attracted nearly $5.3 billion in direct foreign investment to Czech industry between 1990 and September 1995. The Czech crown became convertible for current account transactions in October 1995. Czech companies increasingly are using the international capital market to fund capital investment, and foreign currency reserves totaled $13.9 billion at the end of 1995. Prague's biggest macroeconomic concern now is limiting the inflationary effect of these large capital inflows. The Czech economy also still faces microeconomic problems. Prague has promised to strengthen its bankruptcy law and improve the transparency of stock market operations in 1996, but some changes probably will not take effect until some time after the parliamentary elections of mid-1996 and will depend largely on voluntary compliance. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, 5.5% GDP growth, 2.8% unemployment, and 8.1% inflation for 1996.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
1.0% (1997)
5% (1995 est.)
2.2% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Largely self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock production, including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry; exporter of forest products

Industries:
Fuels
Ferrous metallurgy
Machinery and equipment
Coal
Motor vehicles
Glass
Armaments


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 4.9% (January-September 1994), 12.9% (January-November 1995)

Labor force: 5.389 million
By occupation industry: 37.9%
By occupation agriculture: 8.1%
By occupation construction: 8.8%
By occupation communications and other: 45.2% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.9% (1997)
2.9% (1995 est.)
3.2% (1994 est.)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $16.5 billion
Expenditures:
$16.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)
$13.6 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1994 est.)


Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $17.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$13.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Manufactured goods
Machinery and transport equipment
Chemicals
Fuels
Minerals
Metals
Agricultural products (January-November 1994)

Partners:
Germany 32.4%
Slovakia 16.1%
Austria 6.7%
Italy 4%
France 2.6%
Russia 3.3%
Poland 5.3%
U.K. 2.2%
Netherlands 2.8%
Hungary 2.1%
U.S. 1.8%
Belgium 1.5% (January-September 1995)


Imports
Total value:
$21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Machinery and transport equipment
Manufactured goods
Chemicals
Fuels and lubricants
Raw materials
Agricultural products (January-November 1994)

Partners:
Germany 26%
Slovakia 13.2%
Russia 9.2%
Austria 7%
Italy 5.6%
France 4.1%
U.S. 3.8%
Netherlands 2.9%
U.K. 2.9%
Poland 3.1%
Switzerland 2.1%
Belgium 2.0% (January-September 1995)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$14.9 billion (June 1995)
$8.7 billion (October 1994)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Koruny (Kcs) per US$1_26.967 (January 1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53 (1991), 17.95 (1990)
Note: Values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates


Czech Republic - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 56.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,842 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Czech Republic - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 3,349,539 (1993 est.) telephones
National: nationwide GSM mobile telephone system
International: satellite earth stations_2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Czech Republic - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Czech Republic - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 116
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 13
With paved runways under 914 m: 5
With paved runways With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 41 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
Under 914 m: 5
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 32
Under 914 m: 41 (1994 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: Natural gas 5,400 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Merchant marine
Total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,946 GRT/251,624 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 5 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Czech Republic - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe


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