Statistical information Ecuador 1996Ecuador

Map of Ecuador | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Ecuador in the World
Ecuador in the World

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Ecuador - Introduction 1996
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Background: The 'Republic of the Equator' was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru flared in 1995.


Ecuador - Geography 1996
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Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 283,560 km²
Land: 276,840 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada
Comparative note: Includes Galapagos Islands

Land boundaries: Total 2,010 km, Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: Tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: Coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources:
Petroleum
Fish
Timber

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 6%
Permanent crops: 3%
Permanent pastures: 17%
Forests and woodland: 51%
Other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Ecuador - People 1996
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Population:
11,466,291 (July 1996 est.)
10,890,950 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.96% (1996 est.)
1.95% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Ecuadorian(s)
Adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups:
Mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%
Indian 25%
Spanish 10%
Black 10%


Languages: Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua)

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
35% (male 2,062,468; female 1,996,679) (July 1996 est.)
36% (male 1,990,036; female 1,928,977) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
60% (male 3,403,197; female 3,489,728) (July 1996 est.)
60% (male 3,230,082; female 3,281,575) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
5% (male 241,217; female 273,002) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 215,418; female 244,862) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.96% (1996 est.)
1.95% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
25.06 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
25.08 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
5.5 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
5.55 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution
Current issues Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts
International agreements: party to_Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
International agreements note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:34.8 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
37.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 71.09 years (1996 est.); 70.35 years (1995 est.)
Male: 68.49 years (1996 est.); 67.83 years (1995 est.)
Female: 73.82 years (1996 est.); 72.99 years (1995 est.) (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.97 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 90.1%
Male: 92%
Female: 88.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Ecuador - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
Conventional short form: Ecuador
Local long form: Republica del Ecuador
Local short form: Ecuador

Government type: Republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular_provincia; Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Dependent areas

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: Based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Eduardo PENA Trivino (since 18 October 1995); president and vice president were elected for four-year terms by universal suffrage; runoff election held 5 July 1992; results_Sixto DURAN-BALLEN elected as president (next election was held 19 May 1996; no presidential candidate received more than 50% of the vote; a runoff election between BUCARAM and NEBOT will be held on 7 July 1996); note_former Vice President DAHIK resigned 11 October 1995 and left the country to escape arrest on corruption charges; National Congress chose PENA as his successor in accordance with the constitution
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional):Elections last held 19 May 1996; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(82 total) PSC 27, PRE 21, DP 10, Pachakutik Movement 7, ID 5, PLRE 3, MPD 2, APRE 2, CFP 1, independent and other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Ecuador: Three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Ecuador - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich agricultural areas. Growth has been uneven in recent years because of fluctuations in prices for Ecuador's primary exports_oil and bananas_as well as because of government policies designed to curb inflation. President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN launched a series of macroeconomic reforms when he came into office in August 1992, which included raising domestic fuel prices and utility rates, eliminating most subsidies, and bringing the government budget into balance. These measures helped to reduce inflation from 55% in 1992 to 25% in 1995. DURAN-BALLEN has a much more favorable attitude toward foreign investment than his predecessor and has supported several laws designed to encourage foreign investment. Ecuador has implemented free or complementary trade agreements with Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, as well as joined the World Trade Organization. Growth slowed to 2.3% in 1995 due in part to high domestic interest rates and shortages of electric power.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.3% (1995 est.)
3.9% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 13% of GDP (including fishing and forestry; leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood; other agricultural exports_coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; other crops_rice, potatoes, manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock products_cattle, sheep, hogs, beef, pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrains, dairy products, and sugar

Industries:
Petroleum
Food processing
Textiles
Metal work
Paper products
Wood products
Chemicals
Plastics
Fishing
Lumber


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 6.4% (1993; accounts for almost 35% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 2.8 million
By occupation Agriculture: 35%
By occupation Manufacturing: 21%
By occupation Commerce: 16%
By occupation Services and other activities: 28% (1982)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $3.3 billion (1996 est.); $2.76 billion (1994)
Expenditures: $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.); $2.76 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodities:
Petroleum 39%
Bananas 17%
Shrimp 16%
Cocoa 3%
Coffee 6%

Partners:
U.S. 42%
Latin America 29%
Caribbean
EU countries 17%


Imports: total value:$3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
Commodities:
Transport equipment
Consumer goods
Vehicles
Machinery
Chemicals

Partners:
U.S. 28%
EU 17%
Latin America 31%
Caribbean
Japan


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$12.6 billion (1995 est.)
$13.2 billion (yearend 1993 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Sucres (S/) per US$1_2,915 (31 December 1995), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992), 1,046.25 (1991), 767.78 (1990), 526.35 (1989)


Ecuador - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.9 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 612 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Ecuador - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 586,000 telephones (1994 est.); domestic facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Ecuador - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $386 million, 2.1% of GDP (1995)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Ecuador - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 188
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 5
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 121

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 5
914 to 1523 m: 32 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 121

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,500 km

Merchant marine
Total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 114,701 GRT/171,240 DWT
Ships by type: container 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 12, passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Ecuador - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Significant transit country for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub


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