Statistical information Estonia 1996Estonia

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Estonia in the World
Estonia in the World


Estonia - Introduction 1996
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Background: In and out of Swedish and Russian control over the centuries, this little Baltic state was re-incorporated into the USSR after German occupation in World War II. Independence came with the collapse of the USSR in 1991; the last Russian troops left in 1994. Estonia thus became free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. The position of ethnic Russians (29% of the population) remains an issue of concern to Moscow.

Estonia - Geography 1996
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Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 45,100 km²
Land: 43,200 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Comparative note: Includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Land boundaries: Total 557 km, Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: Marshy, lowlands
Lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m


Natural resources:
Shale oil

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 22%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 11%
Forests and woodland: 31%
Other: 36%

Irrigated land: 110 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Estonia - People 1996
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1,459,428 (July 1996 est.)
1,625,399 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
-1.13% (1996 est.)
0.53% (1995 est.)

Noun: Estonian(s)
Adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups:
Estonian 61.5%
Russian 30.3%
Ukrainian 3.17%
Byelorussian 1.8%
Finn 1.1%
Other 2.13% (1989)

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Religions: Lutheran

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
20% (male 148,683; female 143,563) July 1996 est.)
22% (male 181,101; female 174,304) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
66% (male 467,759; female 501,519) July 1996 est.)
65% (male 515,426; female 549,473) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
14% (male 63,976; female 133,928) (July 1996 est.)
13% (male 65,373; female 139,722) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-1.13% (1996 est.)
0.53% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
10.74 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
13.9 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
14.12 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
11.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-7.96 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
3.31 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at military bases
Current issues Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.87 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:17.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
18.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.13 years (1996 est.), 70.17 years (1995 est.)
Male: 62.5 years (1996 est.), 65.2 years (1995 est.)
Female: 74.05 years (1996 est.), 75.39 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.98 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 100%
Male: 100%
Female: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Estonia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
Conventional short form: Estonia
Local long form: Eesti Vabariik
Local short form: Eesti
Former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular_maakond):Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare), Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
Note: County centers are in parentheses

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: Adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: Based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992); election last held 20 September 1992; (next to be held fall 1996); results_no candidate received majority; newly elected Parliament elected Lennart MERI (21 October 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister Mart SIIMANN (since NA); the president nominated and Parliament authorized the candidate for prime minister
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister, authorized by the legislature

Legislative branch: Unicameral Parliament (Riigikogu):Elections last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1998; results_KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats_(101 total) KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Estonia: Pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990_three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Estonia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Estonia continues to experience strong economic growth after its economy bottomed out in 1993. Bolstered by a widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe, Estonia has adhered to disciplined fiscal and financial policies and has led the FSU countries in pursuing economic reform. Monthly inflation has been held to under 5% since the beginning of 1992, with monthly inflation in 1995 at 2%. Following four years of decline, Estonia's GDP grew 5% in 1994 and 6% in 1995_among the highest rates in Europe, according to estimates of the IMF and Estonia's own Economic Ministry. Despite these positive economic indicators, unemployment_8% in 1994_is on the rise, and wages_especially for teachers and law enforcement personnel_have not kept pace with inflation. Small- and medium-scale privatization is essentially complete, and large-scale privatization is progressing, but slowly. Estonia has successfully reoriented it trade toward the West, two-thirds of exports now going to Western markets. Estonia's free trade policies were the cornerstone of its negotiations with the European Union, and led to the signing of an association agreement in June 1995. Estonia was the only Baltic state not to have a transition period imposed by the EU prior to its implementation of a free trade agreement.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
10% (1997)
6% (1995 est.)
4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 10% of GDP; employs 20% of work force; very efficient by Soviet standards; net exports of meat, fish, dairy products, and potatoes; imports of feedgrains for livestock; fruits and vegetables

Oil shale
Electric motors

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -27% (1993)

Labor force: 750,000 (1992)
By occupation Industry and construction: 42%
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 20%
By occupation Other: 38% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
3.6% (1997)
8% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $620 million
Expenditures: $582 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (January-October 1995)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
$1.65 billion (f.o.b., 1994)

Textile 14%
Food products 11%
Vehicles 11%
Metals 11% (1993)


Total value:
$2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
$1 billion (c.i.f., 1994)

Machinery 18%
Fuels 15%
Vehicles 14%
Textiles 10% (1993)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$270 million (January 1996)
$650 million (end of 1991)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Kroons (EEK) per US$1_11.523 (December 1995), 11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223 (1993; note_krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Estonia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 11.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 6,528 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Estonia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: About 400,000 telephones; 246 telephones/1000 persons; telephone system is antiquated; improvements are being made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for telephone service
Domestic: substantial investment has been made in cellular systems which are operational throughout Estonia
International: international traffic is carried to the other former Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic, submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital network via Helsinki

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Estonia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $35 million, 1.5% of GDP (1995)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Estonia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 22
2438 to 3047 m: 7
914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 5

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 4
Under 914 m: 5


Pipelines: Natural gas 420 km (1992)



Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Merchant marine
Total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 353,140 GRT/467,086 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 33, oil tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 4 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Estonia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; very limited illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption

Volotea Air

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