Statistical information Finland 1996Finland

Map of Finland | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Finland - Introduction 1996
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Background: Long ruled by foreign powers, including Sweden and the pre-revolutionary Russian Empire, Finland finally declared independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland fought the USSR twice and then the Germans toward the end of the war. In the following half-century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy. Per capita income has risen to the West European level; Finland is a member of the European Union.


Finland - Geography 1996
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Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 337,030 km²
Land: 305,470 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: Total 2,628 km, Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 6 nm
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: Cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: Mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
Highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Elevation

Natural resources:
Timber
Copper
Zinc
Iron ore
Silver

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 8%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 76%
Other: 16%

Irrigated land: 620 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Finland - People 1996
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Population:
5,105,230 (July 1996 est.)
5,085,206 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.1% (1996 est.)
0.3% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Finn(s)
Adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 89%
Greek Orthodox 1%
None 9%
Other 1%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
19% (male 492,616; female 471,736) (July 1996 est.)
19% (male 491,484; female 469,666) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years: 67% (male 1,725,113; female 1,687,974) (July 1996 est.) 67% (male 1,716,307; female 1,683,371) (July 1995 est.)
65 years and over:
14% (male 275,927; female 451,864) (July 1996 est.)
14% (male 267,317; female 457,061) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.1% (1996 est.)
0.3% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
11.32 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.22 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
10.92 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.77 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0.58 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0.59 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Current issues Natural hazards: NA international agreements:party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
Current issues note: Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:4.9 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
5.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 75.47 years (1996 est.), 76.22 years (1995 est.)
Male: 73.82 years (1996 est.), 72.51 years (1995 est.)
Female: 77.18 years (1996 est.), 80.11 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.68 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.79 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1980 est.)
Total population: 100%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Finland - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Finland
Conventional short form: Finland
Local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
Local short form: Suomi

Government type: Republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular_laani; Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: Civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994); election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held January 2000); results_Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
Head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
Cabinet: Council of State (Valtioneuvosto); appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: Unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta):Elections last held 19 March 1995 (next to be held March 1999; results_Social Democratic Party 28.3%, Center Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 17.9%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party 5.1%, Green League 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish Christian League 3.0%, Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%; seats_(200 total) Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22, Swedish People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1, Finnish Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Finland: White with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Finland - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output equaling that of the UK, France and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing_principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in 1991 as GDP contracted by 6.5%. The recession_which continued in 1992 with GDP contracting by 4.1%_has been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and changes in monetary policy. In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the European Union's (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability. Ongoing speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in the government's policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by about 12% in November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in September 1992. The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of Finnish exports. The recession bottomed out in 1993, and Finland participated in the general European upturn of 1994. Unemployment probably will remain a serious problem during the next few years; the majority of Finnish firms face a weak domestic market and the troubled German and Swedish export markets. The Finns voted in an October 1994 referendum to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined the Union on 1 January 1995. Increasing integration with Western Europe will dominate the economic picture over the next few years.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
3.0% (1999 est.)
4.2% (1998 est.)
5.9% (1997)
3.6% (1996)
1.4% (1985-1995)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 7% of GDP (including forestry; livestock production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; main crops_cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of foodgrains and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Industries:
Metal products
Shipbuilding
Forestry and wood processing (pulp
Paper)
Copper refining
Foodstuffs
Chemicals
Textiles
Clothing


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 5% (1993 est.), accounts for 28% of GDP

Labor force: 2.533 million
By occupation public services: 30.4%
By occupation industry: 20.9%
By occupation commerce: 15.0%
By occupation insurance and business services: 10.2%
By occupation agriculture and forestry: 8.6%
By occupation transport and communications: 7.7%
By occupation construction: 7.2%
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
14.0% (1997)
15.3% (1996)
16.2% (1995)
17.4% (1994)
17.0% (1993)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $21.7 billion
Expenditures: $31.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1993 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $29.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
$23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1993)

Commodities:
Paper and pulp
Machinery
Chemicals
Metals
Timber

Partners:
EU 46.5% (Germany 13.4%, U.K. 10.3%)
Sweden 11%)
U.S. 7.2%
Japan 2.1%
FSU 8.6% (1994)


Imports
Total value:
$23.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
$18 billion (c.i.f., 1993)

Commodities:
Foodstuffs
Petroleum and petroleum products
Chemicals
Transport equipment
Iron and steel
Machinery
Textile yarn and fabrics
Fodder grains

Partners:
EU 44% (Germany 15%, U.K. 8.3%)
Sweden 10.4%
U.S. 7.6%
Japan 6.5%
FSU 10.3% (1994)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Markkaa (FMk) per US$1_4.4425 (January 1996), 4.3667 (1995), 5.2235 (1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235 (1990)


Finland - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 58 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 12,196 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Finland - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 2.78 million telephones (1986 est.); good service from cable and microwave radio relay network
Domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
International: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations_access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note_Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Finland - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $1.9 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1995), $1.86 billion, about 1.9% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Finland - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 23
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 13
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5 (1995)
With paved runways under 914 m: 92

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 23
15-24 to 2437 m: 13
914 to 1523 m: 5 (1995)
Under 914 m: 92

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Natural gas 580 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for steamers

Merchant marine
Total: 157
Ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 12, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 31, short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier 1 (1995 est.) Airports:

Ports and terminals


Finland - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for Latin American cocaine for the West European market




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