Statistical information Georgia 1996Georgia

Map of Georgia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Georgia in the World

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Georgia - Introduction 1996
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Background: Beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence in 1991, Georgia began to stabilize in 1994. Separatist conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia have been dormant since spring 1994, although political settlements remain elusive. Russian peacekeepers are deployed in both regions and a UN Observer Mission is operating in Abkhazia. As a result of these conflicts, Georgia still has about 250,000 internally displaced people. In 1995, Georgia adopted a new constitution and conducted generally free and fair nationwide presidential and parliamentary elections. In 1996, the government focused its attention to implementing an ambitious economic reform program and professionalizing its parliament. Violence and organized crime were sharply curtailed in 1995 and 1996, but corruption remains rife.


Georgia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 69,700 km²
Land: 69,700 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than South Carolina

Land boundaries: Total 1,461 km, Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: Warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: Largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources:
Forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal and oil deposits
Coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 11%
Permanent crops: 4%
Permanent pastures: 29%
Forests and woodland: 38%
Other: 18%

Irrigated land: 4,660 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Georgia - People 1996
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Population:
5,219,810 (July 1996 est.)
5,725,972 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
-1.02% (1996 est.)
0.77% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Georgian(s)
Adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups:
Georgian 70.1%
Armenian 8.1%
Russian 6.3%
Azeri 5.7%
Ossetian 3%
Abkhaz 1.8%
Other 5%


Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, other 7%

Religions:
Georgian Orthodox 65%
Russian Orthodox 10%
Muslim 11%
Armenian Orthodox 8%
Unknown 6%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
22% (male 595,524; female 571,207) (July 1996 est.)
24% (male 707,355; female 674,331) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
66% (male 1,643,506; female 1,784,286) (July 1996 est.)
64% (male 1,791,847; female 1,894,681) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
12% (male 229,910; female 395,377) (July 1996 est.)
12% (male 247,055; female 410,703) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-1.02% (1996 est.)
0.77% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
12.81 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
15.77 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
12.21 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
8.73 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-10.82 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0.66 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified_Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.9 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:22.5 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
>22.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 68.09 years (1996 est.), 73.1 years (1995 est.)
Male: 63.43 years (1996 est.), 69.43 years (1995 est.)
Female: 72.98 years (1996 est.), 76.95 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 99%
Male: 100%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Georgia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Georgia
Conventional short form: Georgia
Local long form: Sak'art'velos Respublika
Local short form: Sak'art'velo
Former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular_avtom respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria (Bat'umi)
Note: The administrative centers of the autonomous republics are included in parentheses; there are no oblasts_the rayons around T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction

Dependent areas

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: Adopted 21 February 1921; currently amending constitution for Parliamentary and popular review by late 1995

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected Chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992, Council has since been disbanded; previously elected Chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992); presidential election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA April 2001); results_Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 74%; president's term to last five years
Cabinet: Cabbinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: Unicameral Georgian Parliament (Supreme Soviet):Elections last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000; results_CUG 24%, NDP 8%, All Georgia Revival Union 7%, all other parties received less than 5% each; seats_(235 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Georgia: Maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Georgia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and a small industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Since 1991 the economy has sustained severe damage from civil strife. Georgia has been suffering from acute energy shortages, as it is having problems paying for even minimal imports. Georgia is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery largely on reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on developing international transportation through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. Statistical estimates on Georgia are subject to a particularly wide margin of error, even compared with other FSU countries. The GDP estimate below probably does not reflect much of its grass roots economic activity. GDP is supplemented by considerable EU and US humanitarian aid.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-11% (1995 est.)
-30% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of former USSR tea; important producer of grapes; also cultivates vegetables and potatoes; dependent on imports for grain, dairy products, sugar; small livestock sector

Industries:
Heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, airplanes
Machine tools, foundry equipment, electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors, process control equipment, instruments
Trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery
Light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes
Chemicals
Wood-working industries
The most important food industry is wine


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -10% (1995; -27% (1993; accounts for 10.2% of GDP

Labor force: 2.763 million
By occupation Industry and construction: 31%
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 25%
By occupation Other: 44% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: Officially less than 5% but real unemployment may be more than 20%, with even larger numbers of underemployed workers

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $140 million (c.i.f., 1995)
Commodities:
Citrus fruits
Tea
Wine
Other agricultural products
Diverse types of machinery
Ferrous and nonferrous metals
Textiles
Chemicals
Fuel re-exports

Partners:
Russia
Turkey
Armenia
Azerbaijan (1992)


Imports: total value:$250 million (f.o.b., 1995)
Commodities:
Fuel
Grain and other foods
Machinery and parts
Transport equipment

Partners:
Russia
Azerbaijan
Turkey (1993); note_EU and U.S. sent humanitarian food shipments


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $1.2 billion (of which $135 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: laris per US$1: 1.24 (end December 1995)


Georgia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 9.1 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,526 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Georgia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 672,000 telephones (mid-1993); 339,000 unsatisfied applications for telephones (December 1990)
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: links via landline to CIS members and Turkey; low-capacity satellite link and leased international connections via the Moscow international gateway switch with other countries; international electronic mail and telex service available

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Georgia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $60 million to $65 million, NA% of GDP (1995; $85 million, NA of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Georgia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 28
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 1
With paved runways under 914 m: 1
With paved runways With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 6
With unpaved runways note: Transportation network is in poor condition and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 1
Under 914 m: 1
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 6
Note: Transportation network is in poor condition and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine
Total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,765 GRT/483,567 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 2, oil tanker 12, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Georgia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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