Statistical information Greece 1996Greece

Map of Greece | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Greece in the World
Greece in the World

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Greece - Introduction 1996
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Background: Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949 Greece joined NATO in 1952. A military dictatorship which in 1967 had suspended many political liberties and forced the king to flee the country was itself overthrown seven years later. Democratic elections in 1974 abolished the monarchy and created a parliamentary republic; Greece joined the EU in 1981.


Greece - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 131,940 km²
Land: 130,800 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries: Total 1,210 km, Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: Temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: Mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as peninsulas or chains of islands

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m

Natural resources:
Bauxite
Lignite
Magnesite
Petroleum
Marble

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 23%
Permanent crops: 8%
Permanent pastures: 40%
Forests and woodland: 20%
Other: 9%

Irrigated land: 11,900 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Greece - People 1996
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Population:
10,538,594 (July 1996 est.)
10,647,511 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.42% (1996 est.)
0.72% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Greek(s)
Adjective: Greek

Ethnic groups:
Greek 98%
Other 2%

Note: The Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in Greece

Languages: Greek (official), English, French

Religions:
Greek Orthodox 98%
Muslim 1.3%
Other 0.7%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
16% (male 899,029; female 837,308) (July 1996 est.)
18% (male 947,494; female 904,374) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
68% (male 3,571,918; female 3,542,556) (July 1996 est.)
67% (male 3,565,931; female 3,601,029) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
16% (male 736,818; female 950,965) (July 1996 est.)
15% (male 709,639; female 919,044) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.42% (1996 est.)
0.72% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
9.78 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
10.56 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
9.53 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.31 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
3.98 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
5.99 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; water pollution
Current issues Natural hazards: severe earthquakes
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer.htmection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:7.4 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
8.3 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.1 years (1996 est.), 77.92 years (1995 est.)
Male: 75.6 years (1996 est.), 75.39 years (1995 est.)
Female: 80.78 years (1996 est.), 80.59 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.37 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.46 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1991)
Total population: 95%
Male: 98%
Female: 93%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Greece - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Hellenic Republic
Conventional short form: Greece
Local long form: Elliniki Dhimokratia
Local short form: Ellas
Former: Kingdom of Greece

Government type: Presidential parliamentary government; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974

Capital: Athens

Administrative divisions: 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular_nomos)and 1 autonomous region*; Ayion Oros* (Mt. Athos), Aitolia kai Akarnania, Akhaia, Argolis, Arkadhia, Arta, Attiki, Dhodhekanisos, Drama, Evritania, Evros, Evvoia, Florina, Fokis, Fthiotis, Grevena, Ilia, Imathia, Ioannina, Iraklion, Kardhitsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkira, Khalkidhiki, Khania, Khios, Kikladhes, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lesvos, Levkas, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethimni, Rodhopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi, Zakinthos

Dependent areas

Independence: 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 March (1821) (proclamation of the war of independence)

Constitution: 11 June 1975

Legal system: Based on codified Roman law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Konstantinos (Kostis) STEPHANOPOULOS (since 10 March 1995) election last held 10 March 1995 (next to be held by NA 2000); results_Konstantinos STEPHANOPOULOS was elected by Parliament
Head of government: Prime Minister Konstandinos SIMITIS (since 19 January 1996) was appointed by the president
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Vouli Ton Ellinon):Elections last held 10 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1997; results_PASOK 46.88%, ND 39.30%, Political Spring 4.87%, KKE 4.54%, and Progressive Left (replaced by Coalition of the Left and Progress) 2.94%; seats_(300 total) PASOK 170, ND 111, Political Spring 10, KKE 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court, judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council; Special Supreme Tribunal, judges appointed for life by the president after consultation with a judicial council

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 6, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Greece: Nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Greece - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Greece has a mixed capitalist economy. The basic entrepreneurial system underwent extensive socialist change in 1981-89, which enlarged the public sector from 55% of GDP in 1981 to about 70% in 1989. Tourism is a major source of foreign exchange, and agriculture is self-sufficient, except for meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs. Despite a moderate recovery in industrial output over the last year, the Greek economy remains weak, with real GDP growth of 1.7%; the country's huge public sector and burgeoning budget deficit are contributing to a public debt of 120% of GDP. The government's hard drachma policy and public sector wage restraint are largely responsible for the downward trend in inflation, which is at the lowest level in 20 years. Investment is likely to be the primary engine for economic growth in 1996. Athens continues to rely heavily on EU aid, which currently amounts to about 4% of GDP. New Prime Minister SIMITIS's reputation as the architect of Athens' mid-1980s austerity program suggests that he will pursue prudent economic policies that will bring Greece closer to meeting the EU criteria for participating in economic and monetary union. SIMITIS faces strong opposition to further privatization and further austerity.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
1.7% (1995 est.)
0.4% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Including fishing and forestry, accounts for 12% of GDP; principal products_wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes; self-sufficient in food except meat, dairy products, and animal feedstuffs

Industries:
Tourism
Food and tobacco processing
Textiles
Chemicals
Metal products
Mining
Petroleum


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 1.7% (1995 est.), 3.2% (1993 est.), accounts for 18% of GDP

Labor force: 4.077 million
By occupation Services: 52%
By occupation Agriculture: 23%
By occupation Industry: 25% (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
9.6% (1995 est.)
10.1% (1994 est.)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $43.2 billion (excluding privatization receipts (1995 est.), $28.3 billion (1994 est.)
Expenditures: $47 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.), $37.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.2 billion (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $8.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
$9 billion (f.o.b., 1993)

Commodities:
Manufactured goods 53%
Foodstuffs 34%
Fuels 5%

Partners:
EU 55% (Germany 24%,Italy 14%, France 5.4%, U.K. 6%)
U.S. 5% (1994)


Imports
Total value:
$21.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
$19.2 billion (f.o.b., 1993)

Commodities:
Manufactured goods 72%
Foodstuffs 15%
Fuels 10%

Partners:
EU 70% (Germany 17%, Italy 17%, France 8%, U.K. 6%)
Japan 3% (1994)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$31.2 billion (1995 est.)
$26.9 billion (1993)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Drachmae (Dr) per US$1_240.21 (January 1996), 231.60 (1995), 242.60 (1994), 229.26 (1993), 190.62 (1992), 182.27 (1991), 158.51 (1990)


Greece - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 35.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,257 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Greece - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 5,571,293 (1993 est.) telephones; adequate, modern networks reach all areas; microwave radio relay carries most traffic; extensive open-wire network; submarine cables to off-shore islands
Local: microwave radio relay, open wire, and submarine cable; nationwide GSM mobile telephone system
International: tropospheric links, 8 submarine cables; 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 EUTELSAT ground station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Greece - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $4.9 billion, 4.6% of GDP (1995), $4.1 billion, 5.4% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Greece - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 77
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 16
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With paved runways under 914 m: 21

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 16
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 21

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 26 km; petroleum products 547 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 80 km; system consists of three coastal canals; including the Corinth Canal (6 km) which crosses the Isthmus of Corinth connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf and shortens the sea voyage from the Adriatic to Piraievs (Piraeus) by 325 km; and three unconnected rivers

Merchant marine
Total: 1,051 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,842,200 GRT/52,583,281 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 468, cargo 92, chemical tanker 23, combination bulk 22, combination ore/oil 26, container 40, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 245, passenger 15, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 8, roll-on/roll-off cargo 17, short-sea passenger 84, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
Note: Greece owns an additional 1,798 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,291,974 DWT operating under the registries of Liberia, Panama, Cyprus, Malta, The Bahamas, Hong Kong, Japan, Hondurus, Portugal, and Singapore (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Greece - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of cannabis and limited opium; mostly for domestic production; serves as a gateway to Europe for traffickers smuggling cannabis and heroin from the Middle East and Southwest Asia to the West and precursor chemicals to the East; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route


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