Statistical information Hungary 1996Hungary

Map of Hungary | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Hungary - Introduction 1996
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Background: After World War II Hungary became part of Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe, and its government and economy were refashioned on the communist model. Increased nationalist opposition, which culminated in the government's announcement of withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, led to massive military intervention by Moscow and the swift crushing of the revolt. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily moved toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary has developed close political and economic relations with western Europe.


Hungary - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 93,030 km²
Land: 92,340 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: Total 1,989 km, Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 82 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: Mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
Highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Elevation

Natural resources:
Bauxite
Coal
Natural gas
Fertile soils

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50.7%
Permanent crops: 6.1%
Permanent pastures: 12.6%
Forests and woodland: 18.3%
Other: 12.3%

Irrigated land: 1,750 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Hungary - People 1996
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Population:
10,002,541 (July 1996 est.)
10,318,838 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
-0.68% (1996 est.)
0.02% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Hungarian(s)
Adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 89.9%
Gypsy 4%
German 2.6%
Serb 2%
Slovak 0.8%
Romanian 0.7%


Languages: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

Religions:
Roman Catholic 67.5%
Calvinist 20%
Lutheran 5%
Atheist and other 7.5%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years: 18% (male 907,963; female 867,536) (July 1996 est.) 18% (male 958,027; female 918,281) (July 1995 est.)
15-64 years:
68% (male 3,325,529; female 3,464,588) (July 1996 est.)
68% (male 3,440,036; female 3,534,218) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
14% (male 538,106; female 898,819) (July 1996 est.)
14% (female 914,221; male 554,055) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-0.68% (1996 est.)
0.02% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
10.72 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.65 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
15.06 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.44 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-2.48 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution; industrial and municipal pollution of Lake Balaton
Current issues Natural hazards: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs almost every year
Current issues note: Landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.91 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:12.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
11.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.02 years (1996 est.), 71.9 years (1995 est.)
Male: 64.23 years (1996 est.), 67.94 years (1995 est.)
Female: 74.04 years (1996 est.), 76.06 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.51 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.82 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1980)
Total population: 99%
Male: 99%
Female: 98%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Hungary - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
Conventional short form: Hungary
Local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Local short form: Magyarorszag

Government type: Republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 38 counties (megyek, singular_megye) and 1 capital city* (fovaros; Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Fejer, Gyor, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Pest, Somogy, Sopron, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala, Zalaegerszeg

Dependent areas

Independence: 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)

National holiday: St. Stephen's Day (National Day), 20 August (commemorates the founding of Hungarian state circa 1000 A.D.)

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight

Legal system: In process of revision, moving toward rule of law based on Western model

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990; previously interim president from 2 May 1990) was elected for a four-year term by the National Assembly; election last held 19 June 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results_President GONCZ elected by parliamentary vote with a total of 259 votes out of 335
Head of government: Prime Minister Gyula HORN (since 15 July 1994)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; elected by the National Assembly on recommendation of the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules):Elections last held on 24 May 1998 (next to be held spring 2002; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(386 total) FiDeSz 147, MSzP 135, FKgP 48, SzDSz 24, MDF 17, KDNP -, other 15

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Hungary: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Hungary - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Hungary, probably the most Western-oriented economy in East Europe before the transition to a market system began in 1990, made good progress in the initial years of transition. The reform process slowed in 1993-94, however, in part because of the May 1994 elections and the resulting change in government. By 1994 the privatization of state firms had ground to a halt, while both the budget and current account deficits soared to unsustainable levels_about 8% and 10% of GDP, respectively. The situation improved sharply in 1995; an austerity program introduced in March reduced both deficits, and a renewed privatization effort later in 1995 resulted in more than $3 billion worth of sales of state firms to foreign investors_money that will be used to reduce Hungary's large foreign debt. As for other macroeconomic developments, real GDP increased 2.9% in 1994_following several years of steep decline_and about 1.5% in 1995. Unemployment reached 14% in early 1993 before gradually falling back to 10% in 1995. Inflation has oscillated; it reached 40% in mid-1991, dropped to 17% in early 1994, and then jumped back to 31% by mid-1995. Prospects for 1996 are good. With the government still committed to austerity, both the budget and current account deficits should fall to about 4% of GDP. Economic growth is expected to be about 2% and unemployment at about 10%, with inflation falling to 20% by yearend. In March 1996 the IMF signed a new standby loan agreement with Budapest, and the OECD approved Hungary's application for admission.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
4.0% (1997)
1.5% (1995)
3% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Including forestry, accounts for 15% of GDP and 16% of employment; highly diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops_wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets; livestock_hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in food output

Industries:
Mining
Metallurgy
Construction materials
Processed foods
Textiles
Chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)
Buses
Automobiles


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 6% (1995 est.), 7% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 4.8 million (1995)
By occupation services trade government andother: 47.2%
By occupation industry: 29.7%
By occupation agriculture: 16.1%
By occupation construction: 7.0% (1991)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
10.1% (1997)
10.4% (yearend 1995)
10.4% (yearend 1994)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $12.6 billion (1995 est.), $11.3 billion (1994)
Expenditures: $13.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995), $14.2 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $13 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$10.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Raw materials and semi-finished goods 36.4%
Consumer goods 26.7%
Food and agriculture 20.5%
Capital goods 13.1 %
Fuels and energy 3.3% (1994)

Partners:
Germany 28.2%
Austria 10.9%
Italy 8.5%
Russia 7.5%
U.S. 4.0% (1994)


Imports
Total value:
$15 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$14.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Fuels and energy 11.0%
Raw materials and semi-finished goods 36.9%
Capital goods 23.3%
Consumer goods 22.0%
Food and agriculture 6.8% (1994)

Partners:
Germany 23.4%
Russia 12.0%
Italy 7.0%
Austria 12.0%
U.K. 4.0% (1994)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$32.7 billion (October 1995)
$27 billion (September 1994)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Forints per US$1_144 (January 1996), 125.681 (1995),105.160 (1994), 91.933 (1993), 78.988 (1992), 74.735 (1991), 63.21 (1990), 59.07 (1989)


Hungary - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 31 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,012 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Hungary - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1.52 million phones (1993 est.); 14.7 telephones/100 inhabitants (1993); 14,213 telex lines; automatic telephone network based on microwave radio relay system; 608,000 telephones on order; 12-15 year wait for a telephone; 49% of all phones are in Budapest (1991 est.); note_the former state-owned telecommunications firm MATAV_now privatized and managed by a US/German consortium_has ambitious plans to upgrade the inadequate system, including a contract with the German firm Siemens and the Swedish firm Ericsson to provide 600,000 new phone lines during 1996-98
Domestic: microwave radio relay; nationawide GSM mobile phone system
International: satellite earth stations_1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Hungary - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Hungary - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 78
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways under 914 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 7
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 9
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 34

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
Under 914 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 9
914 to 1523 m: 14
Under 914 m: 34

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

Merchant marine: total:10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,121 GRT/61,613 DWT

Ports and terminals


Hungary - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transshipment point for Southeast Asia heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals


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