Statistical information Indonesia 1996Indonesia

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Indonesia - Introduction 1996
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Background: Indonesia declared its independence in 1945 from the Netherlands, a claim disputed, then recognized by the Dutch in 1949. In 1975 Indonesian troops occupied Portuguese East Timor. Current issues include implementing IMF-mandated reforms (particularly restructuring and recapitalizing the insolvent banking sector), effecting a transition to a popularly elected government, addressing longstanding grievances over the role of the ethnic Chinese business class and charges of cronyism and corruption, alleged human rights violations by the military, the role of the military and religion in politics, and growing pressures for some form of independence or autonomy by Aceh, Irian Jaya, and East Timor.


Indonesia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 1,919,440 km²
Land: 1,826,440 km²
Comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: Total 2,602 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources:
Petroleum
Tin
Natural gas
Nickel
Timber
Bauxite
Copper
Fertile soils
Coal
Gold
Silver

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 8%
Permanent crops: 3%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 67%
Other: 15%

Irrigated land: 75,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Indonesia - People 1996
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Population:
206,611,600 (July 1996 est.)
203,583,886 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.53% (1996 est.)
1.56% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Indonesian(s)
Adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:
Javanese 45%
Sundanese 14%
Madurese 7.5%
Coastal Malays 7.5%
Other 26%


Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official), English, Dutch, local dialects the most widely spoken of which is Javanese

Religions:
Muslim 87%
Protestant 6%
Roman Catholic 3%
Hindu 2%
Buddhist 1%
Other 1% (1985)


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
32% (male 33,354,840; female 32,414,363) (July 1996 est.)
32% (male 33,485,810; female 32,548,039) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
64% (male 66,385,852; female 66,827,085) (July 1996 est.)
64% (male 64,914,362; female 65,394,816) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
4% (male 3,380,567; female 4,248,893) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 3,213,492; female 4,027,367) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.53% (1996 est.)
1.56% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
23.67 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
24.06 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
8.38 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
8.48 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas
Current issues Natural hazards: occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Marine Life Conservation
International agreements note: Archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
All ages:
1 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:63.1 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
65 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 61.64 years (1996 est.); 61.22 years (1995 est.)
Male: 59.51 years (1996 est.); 59.13 years (1995 est.)
Female: 63.88 years (1996 est.); 63.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.74 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 83.8%
Male: 89.6%
Female: 78%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Indonesia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
Conventional short form: Indonesia
Local long form: Republik Indonesia
Local short form: Indonesia
Former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type: Republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular_propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular_daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota; Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: Based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Jusuf HABIRIE (since 21 May 1998)
27 March 1968 21 May 1998: President Gen. (Ret.) SOEHARTO
1949 27 March 1968:
President SUKARNO
Vice President Gen. (Ret.) Try SUTRISNO (since 11 March 1993)

Cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: Unicameral House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR):Elections last held on 8 June 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results_GOLKAR 68%, PPP 17%, PDI 15%; seats_(500 total, 400 elected, 100 military representatives appointed) GOLKAR 282, PPP 62, PDI 56
Note: The People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Indonesia: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Indonesia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with some central planning but with an emphasis on rapid deregulation and private enterprise. Real GDP growth in 1985-95 averaged about 7%, quite impressive, but not sufficient to both slash underemployment and absorb the 2.3 million workers annually entering the labor force. Plantation crops_rubber and palm oil_and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export and job generation. Industrial output is based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Foreign investment has also boosted manufacturing output and exports in recent years. Indeed, the economy's growth is highly dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports. Japan remains Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid. Like some other rapidly developing countries in Southeast Asia, Indonesia is struggling to keep the economy from overheating, and in 1997 it was one of the asian countries which had severe problems with value losses on their currencies.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
7.8% (1996)
7.5% (1995)
6.7% (1994)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 17% of GDP; subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation production for export; main products are rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, other tropical products, poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries:
Petroleum and natural gas
Textiles
Mining
Cement
Chemical fertilizers
Plywood
Food
Rubber


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 13.9% (1995 est.), 8.4% (1993 est.), accounts for 32.6% of GDP

Labor force: 67 million
By occupation Agriculture: 55%
By occupation Manufacturing: 10%
By occupation Construction: 4%
By occupation Transport and communications: 3% (1985 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 3% official rate; underemployment 40% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $38.1 billion (FY96/97 est.); $32.8 billion (FY94/95 est.)
Expenditures: $38.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $14.5 billion (FY96/97 est.); $32.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.9 billion (FY94/95)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $39.9 billion (f.o.b, 1994)
Commodities:
Manufactures 51.9%
Fuels 26.4%
Foodstuffs 12.7%
Raw materials 9.0% (1994)

Partners:
Japan 27.4%
U.S. 14.6%
Singapore 10.1%
South Korea 6.5%
Taiwan 4.1%
Netherlands 3.3%
China 3.3%
Hong Kong 3.3%
Germany 3.2% (1994)


Imports: total value:$32 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodities:
Manufactures 75.3%
Raw materials 9.0%
Foodstuffs 7.8%
Fuels 7.7% (1994)

Partners:
Japan 24.2%
U.S. 11.2%
South Korea 6.8%
Germany 7.7%
Singapore 5.9%
Australia 4.8%
Taiwan 4.5%
China 4.3% (1993)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$97.6 billion (1995 est.)
$87 billion (1994)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1_16,000 (January 1998), 12,000 (December 1997), 2,306.3 (January 1996), 2,248.6 (1995), 2,160.8 (1994), 2,087.1 (1993), 2,029.9 (1992), 1,950.3 (1991), 1,842.8 (1990)


Indonesia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 44 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 207 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Indonesia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1,276,600 telephones (1993 est.); domestic service fair, international service good
Local: NA
Intercity: interisland microwave system and HF police net; 1 earth station for a domestic satellite
International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Indonesia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $2.7 billion, 1.4% of GNP (FY95/96; $2.4 billion, 1.5% of GNP (FY94/95)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Indonesia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 414
With paved runways over 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 9
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 3
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 23 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 299

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 4
2438 to 3047 m: 9
15-24 to 2437 m: 3
914 to 1523 m: 23 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 299

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 4 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Merchant marine
Total: 457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,098,958 GRT/3,056,040 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 265, chemical tanker 6, container 11, liquefied gas tanker 5, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 98, passenger 5, passenger-cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 6, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 4 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Indonesia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; government actively eradicating plantings and prosecuting traffickers; minor role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin


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