Statistical information Iran 1996Iran

Map of Iran | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Iran in the World
Iran in the World


Iran - Introduction 1996
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Background: Known as Persia until 1935 Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling shah was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces subsequently crushed westernizing liberal elements. Militant Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979 and held it until 20 January 1981. During 1980-88 Iran fought a bloody indecisive war with Iraq over disputed territory. The key current issue is how rapidly the country should open up to the modernizing influences of the outside world.

Iran - Geography 1996
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Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1.648 million km²
Land: 1.636 million km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: Total 5,440 km, Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan (north) 432 km, Azerbaijan (northwest) 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline: 2,440 km
Note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: natural prolongation
Exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: Rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Extremes lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
Extremes highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources:
Natural gas
Iron ore

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 8%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 27%
Forests and woodland: 11%
Other: 54%

Irrigated land: 57,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Iran - People 1996
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66,094,264 (July 1996 est.)
64,625,455 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.21% (1996 est.)
2.29% (1995 est.)

Noun: Iranian(s)
Adjective: Iranian

Ethnic groups:
Persian 51%
Azerbaijani 24%
Gilaki and Mazandarani 8%
Kurd 7%
Arab 3%
Lur 2%
Baloch 2%
Turkmen 2%
Other 1%

Languages: Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Baloch 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%

Shi'a Muslim 95%
Sunni Muslim 4%
Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i 1%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
45% (male 15,166,131; female 14,289,283) (July 1996 est.)
45% (male 14,995,015; female 14,113,933) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
52% (male 17,326,388; female 16,731,470) (July 1996 est.)
51% (male 16,803,943; female 16,237,810) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 1,327,718; female 1,253,274) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 1,276,885; female 1,197,869) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.21% (1996 est.)
2.29% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
33.67 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
34.85 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
6.61 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.85 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
-5 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-5.11 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water
Current issues Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; duststorms, sandstorms; earthquakes along the Western border
International agreements: party to_Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.05 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:52.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
54.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 67.39 years (1996 est.); 66.97 years (1995 est.)
Male: 66.12 years (1996 est.); 65.77 years (1995 est.)
Female: 68.72 years (1996 est.); 68.22 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.72 children born/woman (1996 est.)
4.93 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1994 est.)
Total population: 72.1%
Male: 78.4%
Female: 65.8%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Iran - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Iran
Conventional short form: Iran
Local long form: Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
Local short form: Iran

Government type: Theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular_ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari (West Azerbaijan), Azarbayjan-e Khavari (East Azerbaijan), Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan
Note: There may be a new province named Ardabil formed from a part of Azarbayjan-e Khavari (East Azerbaijan) which may have been renamed Azarbayjan-e Markazi (Central Azerbaijan); the name Bakhtaran may have been changed to Kermanshahan

Dependent areas

Independence: 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

Legal system: The Constitution codifies Islamic principles of government

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 15 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Supreme leader rahbar and functional chief of state: Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
Head of government: President Muhammed KHATAMI
3 August 1989 June 1997: Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; selected by the president with legislative approval

Legislative branch: Unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami):Elections last held 8 March and 19 April 1996 (next to be held NA March 2000; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Iran: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band; Allah Alkbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Iran - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. Over the past several years, the government has introduced several measures to liberalize the economy and reduce government intervention, but most of these changes have moved slowly or have been reversed because of political opposition. Iran has faced increasingly severe financial difficulties since mid-1992 due to an import surge that began in 1989 and general financial mismanagement. At yearend 1993 the Iranian Government estimated that it owed foreign creditors about $30 billion; an estimated $8 billion of this debt was in arrears. At yearend 1994, Iran rescheduled $12 billion in debt. Earnings from oil exports_which provide 85% of Iran's export revenues_are providing less relief to Iran than usual because of reduced oil prices. Iran's financial situation will remain tight in 1996 because the bulk of payments due under its rescheduling agreements in 1993-94 will be coming due.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-2% (1995 est.)
-2% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 21% of GDP; principal products_wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Cement and other building materials
Food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production)
Metal fabricating
Armaments and military equipment

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 4.3% (1994 est.), 4.6% (1993 est.), accounts for 37% of GDP, including petroleum

Labor force: 15.4 million
By occupation Agriculture: 33%
By occupation Manufacturing: 21%
By occupation note: Shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
Over 30% (1995 est.)
Over 30% (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 21 March_20 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $16 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
$16 billion (c.i.f., FY92/93 est.)

Petroleum 85%


Total value:
$13 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
$18 billion (c.i.f., FY92/93 est.)

Military supplies
Metal works
Technical services
Refined oil products


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$30 billion (1995 est.)
$30 billion (December 1993)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1_1,750 (January 1996), 1,747.93 (1995), 1,748.75 (1994), 1,267.77 (1993), 65.55 (1992), 67.51 (1991; black market rate:4,000 rials per US$1 (December 1995; 3,000 rials per US$1 (December 1994; note_as of May 1995, the "official rate" of 1,750 rials per US$1 is used for imports of essential goods and services and for oil exports, wheras the "official export rate" of 3,000 rials per US$1 is used for non-oil exports and imports not covered by the official rate

Iran - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 50.8 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 745 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Iran - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 3.02 million telephones (1992 est.)
Domestic: microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran
International: 3 INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth stations; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber optic cable to UAE

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Iran - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Iran - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 212
With paved runways over 3047 m: 30
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 11
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 31
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17
With paved runways under 914 m: 22
With paved runways With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 88 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 30
2438 to 3047 m: 11
15-24 to 2437 m: 31
914 to 1523 m: 17
Under 914 m: 22
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 88 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 12 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km



Waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 meters and is in use

Merchant marine
Total: 130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,791,892 GRT/4,891,615 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 47, cargo 41, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Iran - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and international drug trade; produced 35-70 metric tons in 1993; net opiate importer but also a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe


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