Statistical information Italy 1996Italy

Map of Italy | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Italy in the World
Italy in the World


Italy - Introduction 1996
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Background: Italy failed to secure political unification until the 1860s, thus lacking the military and imperial power of Spain, Britain, and France. The fascist dictatorship of MUSSOLINI after World War I, led to the disastrous alliance with HITLER's Germany and defeat in World War II. Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC) and joined in the growing political and economic unification of Western Europe. On-going problems include illegal immigration, the ravages of organized crime, high unemployment, and the low incomes and technical standards of Southern Italy compared with the North.

Italy - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 301,230 km²
Land: 294,020 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Arizona
Comparative note: Includes Sardinia and Sicily

Land boundaries: Total 1,899.2 km, Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline: 4,996 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

Terrain: Mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources:
Dwindling natural gas and crude oil reserves

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 32%
Permanent crops: 10%
Permanent pastures: 17%
Forests and woodland: 22%
Other: 19%

Irrigated land: 31,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Italy - People 1996
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57,460,274 (July 1996 est.)
58,261,971 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.13% (1996 est.)
0.21% (1995 est.)

Noun: Italian(s)
Adjective: Italian

Ethnic groups:
Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Sicilians, Sardinians

Languages: Italian, German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Roman Catholic 98%
Other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
15% (male 4,419,636; female 4,167,860) (July 1996 est.)
15% (male 4,603,083; female 4,352,325) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
68% (male 19,656,546; female 19,629,291) (July 1996 est.)
68% (male 19,874,528; female 19,969,086) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
17% (male 3,902,426; female 5,684,515) (July 1996 est.)
17% (female 5,630,747; male 3,832,202) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.13% (1996 est.)
0.21% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
9.87 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
10.89 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
9.82 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.78 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
1.25 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
1.03 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
Current issues Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
International agreements: party to_Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification
International agreements note: Strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:6.9 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
7.4 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 78.06 years (1996 est.), 77.85 years (1995 est.)
Male: 74.85 years (1996 est.), 74.67 years (1995 est.)
Female: 81.48 years (1996 est.), 81.23 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.27 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.41 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 97%
Male: 98%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Italy - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Italian Republic
Conventional short form: Italy
Local long form: Repubblica Italiana
Local short form: Italia
Former: Kingdom of Italy

Government type: Republic

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular_regione; Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: Based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Oscar Luigi SCALFARO (since 28 May 1992)
Head of government: Prime Minister (referred to in Italy as the President of the Council of Ministers) Romano PRODI (since 18 May 1996) was appointed by the president
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the President of the Council (i.e., Prime Minister) and approved by the President of the Republic

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) Senate (Senato Della Repubblica):Elections last held 22 April 1996 (next to be held by NA; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(326 total, 315 elected, 11 appointed senators-for-life) Olive Tree 157, Freedom Alliance 116, Northern League 27, Refounded Communists 10, regional lists 3, Social Movement-Tricolor Flames 1, Panella Reformers 1 Chamber of Deputies (Camera Dei Deputati):Elections last held 22 April 1996 (next to be held NA; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(630 total) Olive Tree 284, Freedom Alliance 246, Northern League 59, Refounded Communists 35, Southern Tyrol List 3, Autonomous List 2, other 1

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale), composed of 15 judges (one-third appointed by the president, one-third elected by Parliament, one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Italy: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed_orange (hoist side), white, and green

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Italy - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Since World War II, the Italian economy has changed from one based on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by large public enterprises. Most raw materials needed by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. In the second half of 1992, Rome became unsettled by the prospect of not qualifying to participate in EU plans for economic and monetary union later in the decade; thus, it finally began to address its huge fiscal imbalances. Subsequently, the government has adopted fairly stringent budgets, abandoned its inflationary wage indexation system, and started to scale back its generous social welfare programs, including pension and health care benefits. Monetary officials were forced to withdraw the lira from the European monetary system in September 1992, when it came under extreme pressure in currency markets. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of pushing ahead with fiscal reform, refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new competitive forces accompanying the ongoing expansion and economic integration of the EU.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.7% (1999 est.)
2.4% (1998 est.)
1.5% (1997)
0.7% (1996)
2.0% (1985-1995)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for about 4% of GDP; self-sufficient in foods other than meat, dairy products, and cereals; principal crops_fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 525,000 metric tons in 1990

Iron and steel
Food processing
Motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 5.5% (1995 est.), 4.3% (1994 est.), accounts for 35% of GDP

Labor force: 23.988 million
By occupation Services: 58%
By occupation Industry: 32.2%
By occupation Agriculture: 9.8% (1988)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
NA% (1997)
12.0% (1996)
11.9% (1995)
11.4% (1994)
10.3% (1993)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $339 billion
Expenditures: $431 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (1994 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $190.8 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Textiles and clothing
Production machinery
Motor vehicles
Transportation equipment

EU 53.4%
U.S. 7.8%
OPEC 3.8% (1994)

Imports: total value:$168.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
Industrial machinery
Transport equipment
Agricultural products

EU 56.3%
OPEC 5.3%
U.S. 4.6% (1994)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $67 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1_1,583.8 (January 1996), 1,629.6 (1995), 1,612.4 (1994), 1,573.7 (1993), 1,232.4 (1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990)

Italy - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 209 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 4,033 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Italy - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 25.6 million telephones (1987 est.); modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
Domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks; nationwide GSM mobile phone system
International: international service by 21 submarine cables, 3 satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT with 3 Atlantic Ocean antennas and 2 Indian Ocean antennas; also participates in INMARSAT and EUTELSAT systems

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Italy - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $20.4 billion, 1.9% of GDP (1995), $21.5 billion, 2% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Italy - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 132
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 34
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 20 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 32

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 34
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 20 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 32

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 1,703 km; petroleum products 2,148 km; natural gas 19,400 km



Waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial traffic, although of limited overall value

Merchant marine
Total: 419 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,480,320 GRT/7,919,064 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 35, cargo 57, chemical tanker 39, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 3, container 16, liquefied gas tanker 37, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 123, passenger 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 53, short-sea passenger 31, specialized tanker 11, vehicle carrier 7 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Italy - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Important gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market


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