Statistical information Kazakhstan 1996Kazakhstan

Map of Kazakhstan | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kazakhstan in the World
Kazakhstan in the World

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Kazakhstan - Introduction 1996
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Background: As a republic within the USSR (1920-91), Kazakhstan suffered greatly from Stalinist purges, from environmental damage, and saw the ethnic Russian portion of its population rise to 37% while other non-Kazakhs made up almost 20%. Current issues include the pace of market reform and privatization; fair and free elections and democratic reform; ethnic differences between Russians and Kazakhs; environmental problems; and how to convert the country's abundant energy resources into a better standard of living.


Kazakhstan - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Asia, northwest of China

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 2,717,300 km²
Land: 2,669,800 km²
Comparative: slightly less than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: Total 12,012 km, China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,051 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Note: Kazakstan borders the Aral Sea (1,015 km) and the Caspian Sea (1,894 km)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

Terrain: Extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oasis and desert in Central Asia
Lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m
Highest point: Zhengis Shingy 7,439 m

Elevation

Natural resources:
Major deposits of petroleum
Coal
Iron ore
Manganese
Chrome ore
Nickel
Cobalt
Copper
Molybdenum
Lead
Zinc
Bauxite
Gold
Uranium

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 15%
Permanent crops: NEGL%
Permanent pastures: 57%
Forests and woodland: 4%
Other: 24%

Irrigated land: 23,080 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Kazakhstan - People 1996
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Population:
16,916,463 (July 1996 est.)
17,376,615 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
-0.15% (1996 est.)
0.62% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Kazakstani(s)
Adjective: Kazakstani

Ethnic groups:
Kazak (Qazaq) 41.9%
Russian 37%
Ukrainian 5.2%
German 4.7%
Uzbek 2.1%
Tatar 2%
Other 7.1% (1991 official data)


Languages: Kazakh (Qazaqz) official language spoken by over 40% of population, Russian (language of interethnic communication) spoken by two-thirds of population and used in everyday business

Religions:
Muslim 47%
Russian Orthodox 44%
Protestant 2%
Other 7%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
30% (male 2,576,204; female 2,486,937) (July 1996 est.)
30% (male 2,664,952; female 2,589,509) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
63% (male 5,203,035; female 5,451,404) (July 1996 est.)
63% (male 5,371,563; female 5,531,519) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
7% (male 384,341; female 814,542) (July 1996 est.)
7% (male 398,172; female 820,900) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
-0.15% (1996 est.)
0.62% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
19.02 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
19.26 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
9.65 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-10.88 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-5.11 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with its former defense industries and test ranges are found throughout the country and pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers which flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salinization from faulty irrigation practices
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified_Desertification
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.47 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.93 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:63.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
40 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 64.09 years (1996 est.); 68.25 years (1995 est.)
Male: 58.56 years (1996 est.); 63.61 years (1995 est.)
Female: 69.9 years (1996 est.); 73.13 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.36 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.43 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 98%
Male: 99%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Kazakhstan - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kazakstan
Conventional short form: Kazakstan
Local long form: Qazaqstan Respublikasy
Local short form: Qazaqstan (Pronunciation)
Former: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

CapitalAstana, since december 1997 (until may 1998 this city was called Aqmala; the former capital was Almaty

Administrative divisions: 19 oblystar (singular_oblys) and 1 city (qalalar, singular_qala)*; Almaty Qalasy*, Almaty Oblysy, Aqmola Oblysy, Aqtobe Oblysy, Atyrau Oblysy, Batys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oral), Kokshetau Oblysy, Mangghystau Oblysy (Aqtau), Ongtustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Shymkent), Qaraghandy Oblysy, Qostanay Oblysy, Qyzylorda Oblysy, Pavlodar Oblysy, Semey Oblysy, Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy (Oskemen; formerly Ust'-Kamenogorsk), Soltustik Qazaqstan Oblysy (Petropavl), Taldyqorghan Oblysy, Torghay Oblysy, Zhambyl Oblysy, Zhezqazghan Oblysy
Note: Names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblys name

Dependent areas

Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1991)

Constitution: Adopted 28 January 1993; has been amended in April 1995 and August 1995

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (since 22 February 1990) was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet 22 February 1990, and president by popular election 1 December 1991; was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 2000); results_Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV ran unopposed; note_President NAZARBAYEV's term was extended to the year 2000 by a nationwide referendum held 30 April 1995
Head of government: Prime Minister Akezhan KAZHEGELDIN (since 12 October 1994) and First Deputy Prime Ministers Nigmatzhan ISINGARIN (since 12 October 1994) were appointed by the president
Cabinet:
Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister
President NAZARBAYEV has expanded his presidential powers by decree:only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve parliament, call referenda at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities


Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament Senate:Elections (indirect) last held 5 December 1995 (next to be held NA 1999; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(47 total) "independent" state officials 25, progovernment parties 11, other parties 2, vacant 9 (of which 7 are to be nominated by the president) Majilis:Elections last held 9 December and 23 December 1995 (next to be held NA; percent of vote by party NA; seats_(67 total) seats by party NA; note_172 candidates were forwarded by parties and social organizations and 113 candidates were independents

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Kazakhstan: Sky blue background representing the endless sky and a gold sun with 32 rays soaring above a golden steppe eagle in the center; on the hoist side is a "national ornamentation" in yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Kazakhstan - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Kazakstan, the second largest of the former Soviet states in territory, possesses enormous untapped fossil-fuel reserves as well as plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. Kazakstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some defense items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. The government has pursued a moderate program of economic reform and privatization, resulting in a gradual lifting of state controls over economic activity and a shifting of assets into the private sector. Nevertheless, government control over key sectors of the economy remains strong. Moreover, continued lack of pipeline transportation for expanded oil exports has closed off a likely source of economic recovery.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-8.9% (1995 est.)
-25% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 20% of GDP; employs about 28.5% of the labor force; grain, mostly spring wheat; meat, cotton, wool

Industries:
Accounts for 41.5% of net national product
Extractive industries (oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur), iron and steel, nonferrous metal, tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -8% (1995; -28% (1994)

Labor force: 7.356 million
By occupation Industry and construction: 31%
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 26%
By occupation Other: 43% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 1.4% includes only officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of underemployed workers (September 1995 est.), 1.1% (1994)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $5.1 billion (1995)
$3.1 billion (1994)

Commodities:
Oil
Ferrous and nonferrous metals
Chemicals
Grain
Wool
Meat
Coal

Partners:
Russia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan


Imports
Total value:
$3.9 billion (1995)
$3.5 billion (1994)

Commodities:
Machinery and parts
Industrial materials
Oil and gas

Partners:
Russia and other former Soviet republics
China


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $2.5 billion (of which $1.3 billion to Russia)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


Kazakhstan - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 65.7 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 3,700 kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Kazakhstan - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 2.2 million telephones; telephone service is poor; Almaty has 184,000 telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: land line and microwave radio relay
International: international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and through 8 international telecommunications circuits at the Moscow international gateway switch; satellite earth stations_1 Intelsat and a new satellite earth station established at Almaty of unknown type

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Kazakhstan - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Kazakhstan - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 352
With paved runways over 3047 m: 7
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 23
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 11
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With paved runways under 914 m: 9
With paved runways With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 9
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 8
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 25
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 65
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 190

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 7
2438 to 3047 m: 23
15-24 to 2437 m: 11
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 9
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 9

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 8
15-24 to 2437 m: 25
914 to 1523 m: 65
Under 914 m: 190

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 2,850 km; refined products 1,500 km; natural gas 3,480 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 4,002 km on the Syrdariya River and Ertis River

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Kazakhstan - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Southwest Asia


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