Statistical information Kenya 1996Kenya

Map of Kenya | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Kenya in the World
Kenya in the World

World Nomads


Kenya - Introduction 1996
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Background: Revered president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence until his death in 1978 when current President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 which were marred by violence and fraud but are viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people.


Kenya - Geography 1996
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Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: growth has been accompanied by deforestation, deterioration in the road system, the water supply, and other parts of the infrastructure. In industry and services, Nairobi's reluctance to embrace IMF-supported reforms had held back investment and growth in 1991-93. Nairobi's push on economic reform in 1994, however, helped support a 3.3% increase in output. The strong economy continued into 1995 with inflation cut sharply and GDP growth at 5%.
Land: 569,250 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries: Total 3,446 km, Ethiopia 830 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: Low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

Natural resources:
Gold
Limestone
Soda ash
Salt barytes
Rubies
Fluorspar
Garnets
Wildlife

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 7%
Forests and woodland: 4%
Other: 85%

Irrigated land: 520 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Kenya - People 1996
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Population:
28,176,686 (July 1996 est.)
28,817,227 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.27% (1996 est.)
0.99% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Kenyan(s)
Adjective: Kenyan

Ethnic groups:
Kikuyu 22%
Luhya 14%
Luo 13%
Kalenjin 12%
Kamba 11%
Kisii 6%
Meru 6%
Asian, European, and Arab 1%
Other 15%


Languages: English (official), Swahili (official), numerous indigenous languages

Religions:
Protestant (including Anglican) 38%
Roman Catholic 28%
Indigenous beliefs 26%
Other 8%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
45% (male 6,362,160; female 6,226,333) (July 1996 est.)
48% (male 6,957,908; female 6,841,235) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
53% (male 7,413,876; female 7,448,733) (July 1996 est.)
50% (male 7,085,925; female 7,277,061) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
2% (male 328,649; female 396,935) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 295,439; female 359,659) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.27% (1996 est.)
0.99% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
33.38 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
41.66 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
10.3 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.04 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-0.35 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-19.69 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified_Desertification
International agreements note: The Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers on Mt. Kenya; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
All ages:
1 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:55.3 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
73.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 55.61 years (1996 est.), 52.41 years (1995 est.)
Male: 55.53 years (1996 est.), 50.72 years (1995 est.)
Female: 55.69 years (1996 est.), 54.16 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.45 children born/woman (1996 est.)
5.76 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 78.1%
Male: 86.3%
Female: 70%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Kenya - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Kenya
Conventional short form: Kenya
Former: British East Africa

Government type: Republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Dependent areas

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1991, and 1992

Legal system: Based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI (since 14 October 1978) elected for a five-year term from the National Assembly by direct popular vote; election last held 29 December 1997 (next to be held NA December 2002); results_President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected though elections were chaotic and said not to have been fair; Vice President George SAITOTI (since 10 May 1989) was appointed by the president
12 december 1963 14 october 1978: President Jomo KENYATTA
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (Bunge):Elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(188 total) KANU 100, FORD-Kenya 31, FORD-Asili 31, DP 23, smaller parties 3; president nominates 12 additional members; note_as of 9 April 1996 seat distribution was:KANU 106, FORD-Kenya 32, FORD-Asili 22, DP 22, smaller parties and vacancies 6
Note: First multiparty election since repeal of one-party state law in 1991

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Kenya: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Kenya - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Kenya in recent years has had one of the highest natural rates of growth in population, but the statistics have been complicated by the large-scale movement of nomadic groups and of Somalis back and forth across the border.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
5% (1995 est.)
3.3% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Most important sector, accounting for 27% of GDP and 65% of exports; cash crops_coffee, tea; food products_corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs

Industries:
Small-scale consumer goods (plastic
Furniture
Batteries
Textiles
Soap
Cigarettes
Flour)
Processing agricultural products
Oil refining
Cement
Tourism


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 3.9% (1991 est.), accounts for 19% of GDP

Labor force
By occupation Agriculture: 75%-80% (1993est.)
By occupation non-agriculture: 20%-25% (1993est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 35% urban (1994 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $2.4 billion
Expenditures: $2.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $740 million (1990 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July_30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodities:
Tea 25%
Coffee 18%
Petroleum products 11% (1990)

Partners:
EU 47%
Africa 23%
Asia 11%
U.S. 4%
Middle East 3% (1991)


Imports: total value:$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
Commodities:
Machinery and transportation equipment 29%
Petroleum and petroleum products 15%
Iron and steel 7%
Raw materials
Food and consumer goods (1989)

Partners:
EU 46%
Asia 23%
Middle East 20%
U.S. 5% (1991)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $7 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1_56.715 (January 1996), 51.430 (1995), 56.051 (1994), 58.001 (1993), 32.217 (1992), 27.508 (1991), 22.915 (1990)


Kenya - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 117 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Kenya - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 357,251 telephones (1989 est.); in top group of African systems
Local: NA
Intercity: consists primarily of microwave radio relay links
International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Kenya - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $136 million, 1.9% of GDP (FY93/94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Kenya - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 199
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 22
With paved runways under 914 m: 62
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 95 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 22
Under 914 m: 62

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 95 (1995 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: Petroleum products 483 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: Part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya

Merchant marine
Total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,883 GRT/6,255 DWT
Ships by type: oil tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Kenya - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Widespread harvesting of small, wild plots of marijuana and qat (chat; most locally consumed; transit country for Southwest Asian heroin moving to West Africa and onward to Europe and North America; Indian methaqualone also transits on way to South Africa


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