Statistical information Kyrgyzstan 1996Kyrgyzstan

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Kyrgyzstan - Introduction 1996
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Background: A country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian empire in 1864. In the Czarist and Soviet periods, Russian managers and technicians were sent to Kyrgyzstan and have recently made up more than one-fifth of the population. Many Russians have been returning home since Kyrgyzstan gained its independence in 1991 when the USSR collapsed. Privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, and inter-ethnic relations are current issues.


Kyrgyzstan - Geography 1996
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Location: Central Asia, west of China

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 198,500 km²
Land: 191,300 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: Total 3,878 km, China 858 km, Kazakstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley; temperate in northern foothill zone

Terrain: Peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Kara-Daryya 132 m
Extremes highest point: Jengish Chokusu 7,439 m

Natural resources:
Abundant hydroelectric potential
Significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals
Locally exploitable coal, oil and natural gas
Other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 7%
Permanent crops: NEGL%
Permanent pastures: 42%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 51%

Irrigated land: 10,320 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Kyrgyzstan - People 1996
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Population:
4,529,648 (July 1996 est.)
4,769,877 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.07% (1996 est.)
1.5% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Kyrgyz(s)
Adjective: Kyrgyz

Ethnic groups:
Kirghiz 52.4%
Russian 21.5%
Uzbek 12.9%
Ukrainian 2.5%
German 2.4%
Other 8.3%


Languages: Kirghiz (Kyrgyz)_official language, Russian widely used

Religions:
Muslim 70%
Russian Orthodox


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
37% (male 847,859; female 828,889) (July 1996 est.)
37% (male 888,479; female 868,108) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
57% (male 1,263,044; female 1,312,040) (July 1996 est.)
57% (male 1,345,990; female 1,377,221) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
6% (male 100,524; female 177,292) (July 1996 est.)
6% (male 104,272; female 185,807) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.07% (1996 est.)
1.5% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
26.02 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
25.97 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
8.83 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
7.32 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-16.5 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-3.66 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells, as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: NA
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:77.8 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
45.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 63.86 years (1996 est.); 68.13 years (1995 est.)
Male: 59.18 years (1996 est.); 63.92 years (1995 est.)
Female: 68.77 years (1996 est.); 72.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.22 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.31 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 97%
Male: 99%
Female: 96%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Kyrgyzstan - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
Conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
Local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Local short form: Kyrgyzstan
Former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Bishkek

Administrative divisions: 6 oblasttar (singular_oblast) and 1 city* (singular_shaar); Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
Note: Names in parentheses are administrative centers when name differs from oblast name

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: National Day, 2 December; Independence Day, 31 August (1991)

Constitution: Adopted 5 May 1993
Note: amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature

Legal system: Based on civil law system

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990) was elected for a five-year term by popular vote; elections last held 24 December 1995 (next to be held NA); results_Askar AKAYEV won election with 75% of vote with 86% of electorate voting; note_elections were held early which gave the two opposition candidates little time to campaign; AKAYEV may have orchestrated the "deregistration" of two other candidates, one of whom was a major rival
Head of government: Prime Minister Apas JUMAGULOV (since NA December 1993) was appointed by the president and reappointed February 1996
Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers; subordinate to the president

Legislative branch: Bicameral Supreme Council (Zhogorku Kenesh) Assembly of Legislatures:Elections last held 5 February 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(70 total) seats by party NA; note_not all the 70 seats were filled at the 5 February elections; as a result, run-off elections were held at later dates; the assembly meets twice yearly Assembly of Representatives:Elections last held 5 February 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(35 total) seats by party NA; note_not all the 35 seats were filled at the 5 February elections; as a result, run-off elections were held
Note: The legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995 elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed for a 10-year term by the Zhogorku Kenesh on recommendation of the president; Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Kyrgyzstan: Red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kirghiz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kirghiz yurt

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Kyrgyzstan - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products and exports. Industrial exports included gold, mercury, uranium, and hydropower. Kyrgyzstan has been one of the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in carrying out market reforms. Following a successful stabilization program, which has lowered inflation from 88% in 1994 to 32% for 1995, attention is turning toward stimulating growth. About half of government stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production have been severe since the break up of the Soviet Union, but by mid-1995 production began to level off as exports began to increase. The level of hardship for pensioners, unemployed workers, and government workers with salaries arrears continues to be very high. Foreign assistance plays a substantial role in the country's budget. In early 1996, the economy apparently is slowly beginning to restore previous levels of output.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-6% (1995 est.)
-24% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Wool, tobacco, cotton, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle), vegetables, meat, grapes, fruits and berries, eggs, milk, potatoes

Industries:
Small machinery
Textiles
Food-processing industries
Cement
Shoes
Sawn logs
Refrigerators
Furniture
Electric motors
Gold
And rare earth metals


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -12.5% (1995; -24% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 1.836 million
By occupation Agriculture and forestry: 38%
By occupation Industry and construction: 21%
By occupation Other: 41% (1990)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
4.8% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers (December 1995)
0.7% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers (1994)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $380 million (1995)
$116 million to countries outside the FSU (1994)

Commodities:
Wool
Chemicals
Cotton
Ferrous and nonferrous metals
Shoes
Machinery
Tobacco

Partners:
Russia 70%
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Kazakstan
Turkey
Cuba
Germany


Imports
Total value:
$439 million (1995)
$92.4 million from countries outside the FSU (1994)

Commodities:
Grain
Lumber
Industrial products
Ferrous metals
Fuel
Machinery
Textiles
Footwear

Partners:
Russia
Uzbekistan
Kazakstan
China
U.K.


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $480 million (of which $115 million to Russia) (1995 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Soms per US$1_11.2 (yearend 1995), 10.6 (yearend 1994)


Kyrgyzstan - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 12.3 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,500 kWh (1995 est.)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Kyrgyzstan - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 342,000 telephones (1991); poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones
Local: NA
Intercity: principally by microwave radio relay
International: connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations_1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Kyrgyzstan - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Kyrgyzstan - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 54
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 4
With paved runways under 914 m: 32
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 4

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 4
Under 914 m: 32
914 to 1523 m: 4

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Natural gas 200 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Kyrgyzstan - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe and North America from Southwest Asia


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