Statistical information Macedonia 1996Macedonia

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Macedonia - Introduction 1996
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Background: International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYROM) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. FYROM's large Albanian minority and the de facto independence of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.


Macedonia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: total:25,333 km²; land:24,856 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries: Total 748 km, Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain: Mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; there are three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River; Lowest point:Vardar River 50 m; Highest point:Korab 2,753 m

Elevation

Natural resources: Chromium; Lead; Zinc; Manganese; Tungsten; Nickel; Low-grade iron ore; Asbestos; Sulphur; Timber
Land use

Land use: arable land:5%; permanent crops:5%; permanent pastures:20%; forests and woodland:30%; other:40%

Irrigated land: NA

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography
Note: Landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and outhern Europe to Western Europe


Macedonia - People 1996
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Population: 2,104,035 (July 1996 est.); 2,159,503 (July 1995 est.); note:The Macedonian government census of July 1994 put the population at 1.94 million, but ethnic allocations were likely undercounted
Growth rate: 0.46% (1996 est.); 0.9% (1995 est.)

Nationality: noun:Macedonian(s); adjective:Macedonian

Ethnic groups: Macedonian 65%; Albanian 22%; Turkish 4%; Serb 2%; Gypsies 3%; Other 4%

Languages: Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 67%; Muslim 30%; Other 3%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure: 0-14 years:22% (male 242,593; female 228,563) (July 1996 est.); 25% (male 277,314; female 257,876) (July 1995 est.); 15-64 years:68% (male 728,969; female 703,665) (July 1996 est.); 67% (male 733,903; female 711,810) (July 1995 est.); 65 years and over:10% (male 90,363; female 109,882) (July 1996 est.); 8% (male 81,125; female 97,475) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1996 est.); 0.9% (1995 est.)

Birth rate: 13.31 births/1000 population (1996 est.); 15.82 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate: 8.47 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.); 6.7 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.); -0.14 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; Natural hazards:high seismic risks
International agreements: party to_Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

Air pollutants

Sex ratio: :at birth:1.08 male(s)/female; under 15 years:1.06 male(s)/female; 15-64 years:1.04 male(s)/female; 65 years and over:0.82 male(s)/female; all ages:1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:29.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.); 24.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth: total population:71.94 years (1996 est.), 74 years (1995 est.); male:69.86 years (1996 est.), 71.87 years (1995 est.); female:74.18 years (1996 est.), 76.3 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (1996 est.); 2.02 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy: definition:NA

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Macedonia - Government 1996
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Country name: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; conventional short form: None; local long form: Republika Makedonija; local short form: Makedonija Abbreviation:FYROM

Government type: Emerging democracy

Capital: Skopje

Administrative divisions: 34 counties (opstinas, singular_opstina) Berovo, Bitola, Brod, Debar, Delcevo, Gevgelija, Gostivar, Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kocani, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Murgasevo, Negotino, Ohrid, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Resen, Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, Skopje-Gazi Baba, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Sveti Nikole, Tetovo, Titov Veles, Valandovo, Vinica

Dependent areas

Independence: 17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: 8 September

Constitution: Adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

Legal system: Based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state:President Kiro GLIGOROV (since 27 January 1991) was elected by the Assembly in 1991 and reelected by popular vote in 1994; election last held 16 October 1994 (next to be held NA 1996); results_percent of vote NA; note_following a failed assassination attempt on the president in October 1995, then Parliamentary Speaker Stojan ANDOV was acting president; GLIGOROV resumed his duties in early 1996; head of government:Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 4 September 1992); cabinet:Council of Ministers were elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note_after the withdrawal of the Liberal Party from the ruling coalition in early 1996, the Council of Ministers was reorganized without LP participation

Legislative branch: Unicameral Assembly (Sobranje):Elections last held 16 and 30 October 1994 (next to be held November 1998); results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(120 total) SDSM_61; LP_27; SPM_8; DPT_1; PDP_9; PDPA_5; DPM_1; PCERM -2; SDPM_1; independant Mps_5.

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, judges are elected by the Judicial Council; Judicial Court of the Republic, judges are elected by the Judicial Council

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation

Flag description: A rising yellow sun with 8 rays extending to the edges of the red field

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Macedonia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although the poorest republic in the former Yugoslav federation, can meet basic food and energy needs through its own agricultural and coal resources. Its economic decline will continue unless ties are reforged or enlarged with its neighbors Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and Bulgaria. The economy depends on outside sources for all of its oil and gas and most of its modern machinery and parts. An important supplement of GDP is the remittances from thousands of Macedonians working in Germany and other West European nations. The end of sanctions on Serbia and the lifting of the Greek embargo on Macedonia have reopened its natural trade corridors, but the country has been slow to capitalize on these opportunities. Moreover, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's geographical isolation, technological underdevelopment, and potential political instability place it far down the list of countries of interest to Western investors. An internal commitment to economic reform would encourage foreign investment over the long run.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 4% (1996 est.) 1% (1995 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Meets the basic needs for food; principal crops are rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, and millet; also grown are cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus fruit, and vegetables; agricultural production is highly labor intensive

Industries: Low levels of technology predominate, such as, oil refining by distillation only; Produces basic liquid fuels, coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, and ferronickel; Light industry produces basic textiles, wood products, and tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate +4% (1996), -14% (1993)

Labor force: 591,773 (June 1994)
By occupation: Manufacturing and mining 40% (1992)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 31% (1996 est.) 37% (1995 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget: revenues:$1 billion (projected for 1996); expenditures:$1.05 billion (projected for 1996)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $916.2 million (1995); $1.06 billion (1993)
Commodities: Manufactured goods 40%; Machinery and transport equipment 14%; Miscellaneous manufactured articles 23%; Raw materials 7.6%; Food (rice) and live animals 5.7%; Beverages and tobacco 4.5%; Chemicals 4.7% (1990)
Partners: Principally Serbia and Montenegro and the other former Yugoslav republics; Germany; Greece; Albania

Imports: total value:$199 million (1995)
Commodities: Fuels and lubricants 19%; Manufactured goods 18%; Machinery and transport equipment 15%; Food and live animals 14%; Chemicals 11.4%; Raw materials 10%; Miscellaneous manufactured articles 8.0%; Beverages and tobacco 3.5% (1990)
Partners: Other former Yugoslav republics; Greece; Albania; Germany; Bulgaria

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $840 million (1992)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Denar per US$1_US$1 = MKD42, 38.8 (December 1995), 39 (November 1994), 865 (October 1992)


Macedonia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 6.046 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 2,941 kWh (1992)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Macedonia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system:
200,000 telephones (250,000 planned by 1999) Mobile
GSM:currently functioning in 1/2 of country; whole country should be covered by 1998.; Local:NA; Intercity:NA; international:Satellite links with Canada, Germany, and Australia; National broadcast stations:AM 6, FM 2, shortwave 0


Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Macedonia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Macedonia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 16; 2,438 to 3,047 m:2; under 914 m:11; 1,524 to 2,437 m:1; 914 to 1,523 m:2

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: A natural gas pipeline from the Bulgarian border up to the capital Skopje is scheduled to extend to the Albanian border by the year 2000.

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: None, lake transport only

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Macedonia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Limited illicit opium cultivation; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin


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