Statistical information Madagascar 1996Madagascar

Map of Madagascar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Madagascar - Introduction 1996
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Background: Formerly an independent kingdom Madagascar became a French colony in 1886 but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93 free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule.

Madagascar - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 587,040 km²
Land: 581,540 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: Narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

Natural resources:
Tar sands
Semiprecious stones

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 58%
Forests and woodland: 26%
Other: 11%

Irrigated land: 9,000 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Madagascar - People 1996
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13,670,507 (July 1996 est.)
13,862,325 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.83% (1996 est.)
3.18% (1995 est.)

Noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
Adjective: Malagasy

Ethnic groups:
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo)
Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry_Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava)
French, Indian, Creole, Comoran

Languages: French (official), Malagasy (official)

Indigenous beliefs 52%
Christian 41%
Muslim 7%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
45% (male 3,105,958; female 3,034,279) (July 1996 est.)
47% (male 3,265,715; female 3,231,647) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
52% (male 3,499,021; female 3,573,052) (July 1996 est.)
50% (male 3,413,564; female 3,511,699) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 224,710; female 233,487) (July 1996 est.)
3% (male 214,495; female 225,205) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.83% (1996 est.)
3.18% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
42.63 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
44.82 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
14.38 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
12.99 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered
Current issues Natural hazards: periodic cyclones
International agreements: party to_Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: World's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
All ages:
1 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:93.5 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
86.9 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 52.19 years (1996 est.), 54.45 years (1995 est.)
Male: 51.11 years (1996 est.), 52.47 years (195 est.)
Female: 53.3 years (1996 est.), 56.48 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)
6.62 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1990 est.)
Total population: 80%
Male: 88%
Female: 73%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Madagascar - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
Conventional short form: Madagascar
Local long form: Republique de Madagascar
Local short form: Madagascar
Former: Malagasy Republic

Government type: Republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Constitution: 19 August 1992 by national referendum

Legal system: Based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Albert ZAFY (since 9 March 1993); election last held on 10 February 1993 (next to be held 1998); results_Albert ZAFY (UNDD), 67%; Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA), 33%
Head of government: Prime Minister Emmanuel RAKOTOVAHINY (since 30 October 1995) was elected by the National Assembly
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament Senate (Senat):Two-thirds of upper house seats are to be filled from popularly elected regional assemblies; the remaining third is to be filled by presidential appointment; decentralization and formation of regional assemblies is not expected before 1997 National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale):Elections last held on 16 June 1993 (next to be held June 1997; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(138 total) CFV coalition 76, PMDM/MFM 16, CSCD 11, Famima 10, RPSD 7, various pro-Ratsiraka groups 10, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Madagascar: Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Madagascar - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world, suffering from chronic malnutrition, underfunded health and education facilities, a roughly 3% annual population growth rate, and severe loss of forest cover, accompanied by erosion. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 35% of GDP and contributing more than 70% of export earnings. Industry is largely confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile manufacturing; it accounts for 15% of GDP. In 1986, the government introduced a five-year development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by 1990, increased production for export, and reduced energy imports. Subsequently, growth in output has been held back because of protracted antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political reform. Since 1993, corruption and political instability have caused the economy and infrastructure to decay further. Since April 1994, the government commitment to economic reforms has been erratic. Enormous obstacles stand in the way of Madagascar's realizing its considerable growth potential.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
2.7% (1995 est.)
2.8% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops_coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops_rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice

Agricultural processing (meat canneries
Soap factories
Sugar refining plants)
Light consumer goods industries (textiles
Automobile assembly plant

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 3.8% (1993 est.), accounts for 13% of GDP

Labor force
Total workers: 4.9 million
Workers not receiving money wages: 4.7 million (96% of total labor force); note_4.3 million workers are in subsistence agriculture
Wage earners: 175,000 (3.6% of total work force)
Wage earners by occupation: agriculture 45,500, domestic service 29,750, industry 26,250, commerce 24,500, construction 19,250, service 15,750, transportation 10,500, other 3,500 (1985 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $250 million
Expenditures: $265 million, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1991 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $240 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Coffee 45%
Vanilla 20%
Cloves 11%
Petroleum products


Imports: total value:$510 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
Intermediate manufactures 30%
Capital goods 28%
Petroleum 15%
Consumer goods 14%
Food 13%


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $4.3 billion (1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1_4,239.5 (November 1995), 3,067.3 (1994), 1,913.8 (1993), 1,864.0 (1992), 1,835.4 (1991), 1,454.6 (December 1990)

Madagascar - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 560 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 40 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Madagascar - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 96,000 telephones (1988 est.); above average system to African standards
Local: NA
Intercity: open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter links
International: submarine cable to Bahrain; 1 earth station for Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Madagascar - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $29 million, 1.0% of GDP (1994), $35 million, 1.3% of GDP (1991)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Madagascar - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 105
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 45 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 31

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 45 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 31

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Merchant marine
Total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,132 GRT/31,261 DWT
Ships by type: cargo 5, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Madagascar - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption

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