Statistical information Malawi 1996Malawi

Map of Malawi | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Malawi in the World
Malawi in the World

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Malawi - Introduction 1996
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Background: Established in 1891 the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution which took full effect the following year.

Malawi - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, east of Zambia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 118,480 km²
Land: 94,080 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: Total 2,881 km, Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Tropical; rainy season (November to May; dry season (May to November)

Terrain: Narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains

Extremes lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Mlanje Sapitwa 3,002 m

Natural resources:
Unexploited deposits of uranium
And bauxite

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 25%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 20%
Forests and woodland: 50%
Other: 5%

Irrigated land: 200 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Malawi - People 1996
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9,452,844 (July 1996 est.)
9,808,384 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.71% (1996 est.)
2.63% (1995 est.)

Noun: Malawian(s)
Adjective: Malawian

Ethnic groups: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European

Languages: English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally

Protestant 55%
Roman Catholic 20%
Muslim 20%
Traditional indigenous beliefs

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
46% (male 2,189,223; female 2,168,317) (July 1996 est.)
48% (male 2,384,679; female 2,361,309) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
51% (male 2,371,518; female 2,472,245) (July 1996 est.)
49% (male 2,335,729; female 2,479,108) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 107,701; female 143,840) (July 1996 est.)
3% (male 107,927; female 139,632) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.71% (1996 est.)
2.63% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
41.56 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
49.81 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
24.48 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
23.53 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
Note: The return of refugees to Mozambique is apparently complete

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish population
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:139.9 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
140.2 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 36.16 years (1996 est.), 39.01 years (1995 est.)
Male: 35.87 (1996 est.), 38.28 years (1995 est.)
Female: 36.46 years (1996 est.), 39.76 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.91 children born/woman (1996 est.)
7.36 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 56.4%
Male: 71.9%
Female: 41.8%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Malawi - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Malawi
Conventional short form: Malawi
Former: Nyasaland

Government type: Multiparty democracy following a referendum on 14 June 1993; formerly a one-party republic

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Dependent areas

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Constitution: 18 May 1995; most recent revision

Legal system: Based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994), leader of the United Democratic Front 16 july 1964_21 may 1994:Hastings BANDA (died in November 1997)
Cabinet: Cabinet; named by the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly:Elections last held 17 May 1994 (next to be held NA 1999; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(177 total) UDF 84, AFORD 33, MCP 55, others 5; note_because of defections and a bi-election of 18 December 1995, the seats in the National Assembly were held at the end of the year as follows:UDF 87, MCP 55, AFORD 35
Note: the constitution of 18 May 1995, in addition to reducing the age at which universal suffrage is conferred from 21 to 18 years, provided for a bicameral legislature; by 1999, in addition to the existing National Assembly, a Senate of 80 seats is to be elected

Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, SADC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Malawi: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of Afghanistan, which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Malawi - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 31% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. The new government faces strong challenges, e.g., to spur exports, to improve educational and health facilities, and to deal with environmental problems of deforestation and erosion. Drought hurt the 1994 economy, with GDP down by 12.4%. Good weather and a strong tobacco crop resulted in an upturn in 1995. In December 1995, donors pledged $332 million in aid for 1996.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
9.9% (1995 est.)
9.3% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 31% of GDP; cash crops_tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops_potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses; livestock_cattle, goats

Agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar)
Consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 3.5% accounts for about 14% of GDP (1992 est.)

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners
By occupation Agriculture: 43%
By occupation Manufacturing: 16%
By occupation Personal services: 15%
By occupation Commerce: 9%
By occupation Construction: 7%
By occupation Miscellaneous services: 4%
By occupation Other permanently employed: 6% (1986)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $530 million (1993), $416 million (1992)
Expenditures: $674 million, including capital expenditures of $129 million (1993), $498 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $365 million (f.o.b., 1994)
$311 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Wood products

South Africa

Total value:
$240 million (c.i.f., 1994)
$308 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)

Petroleum products
Consumer goods
Transportation equipment

South Africa

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$1.95 billion (December 1994 est.)
$1.8 billion (December 1993 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1_16.3516 (November 1995), 8.7364 (1994), 4.4028 (1993), 3.6033 (1992), 2.8033 (1991), 2.7289 (1990), 2.7595 (1989)

Malawi - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 820 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 77 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Malawi - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 43,000 telephones (1985 est.)
Local: NA
Intercity: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and radio communications stations
International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Malawi - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $10.4 million, NA% of GDP (FY94/95), $13 million, 0.7% of GDP (FY93/94)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Malawi - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 41
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 14 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 20

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 14 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 20

Airports with unpaved runways





Waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi; Shire River, 144 km

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Malawi - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Crystal Travel

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