Statistical information Malaysia 1996Malaysia

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Malaysia in the World
Malaysia in the World

World Nomads


Malaysia - Introduction 1996
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Background: Malaysia was created in 1963 through the merging of Malaya (independent in 1957) and the former British Singapore both of which formed West Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak in north Borneo which composed East Malaysia. The first three years of independence were marred by hostilities with Indonesia. Singapore seceded from the union in 1965.


Malaysia - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula and northern one-third of the island of Borneo bordering the Java Sea and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 329,750 km²
Land: 328,550 km²
Comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: Total 2,669 km, Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

Terrain: Coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources:
Tin
Petroleum
Timber
Copper
Iron ore
Natural gas
Bauxite

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 10%
Permanent pastures: 0%
Forests and woodland: 63%
Other: 24%

Irrigated land: 3,420 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Malaysia - People 1996
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Population:
19,962,893 (July 1996 est.)
19,723,587 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.07% (1996 est.)
2.24% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Malaysian(s)
Adjective: Malaysian

Ethnic groups:
Malay and other indigenous 59%
Chinese 32%
Indian 9%


Languages: Peninsular Malaysia:Malay (official), English, Chinese dialects, Tamil Sabah:English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate) Sarawak:English, Malay, Mandarin, numerous tribal languages, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka dialects predominate)

Religions: Peninsular Malaysia:Muslim (Malays), Buddhist (Chinese), Hindu (Indians) Sabah:Muslim 38%, Christian 17%, other 45% Sarawak:Tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%, Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
36% (male 3,684,510; female 3,483,893) (July 1996 est.)
37% (male 3,690,310; female 3,559,434) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
60% (male 5,996,369; female 6,017,327) (July 1996 est.)
59% (male 5,844,568; female 5,871,131) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
4% (male 342,742; female 438,052) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 334,605; female 423,539) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.07% (1996 est.)
2.24% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
26.2 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
27.95 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
5.49 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
5.56 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation
Current issues Natural hazards: flooding
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Law of the Sea
International agreements note: Strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:24 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
24.7 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.75 (1996 est.); 69.48 years (1995 est.)
Male: 66.82 (1996 est.); 66.55 years (1995 est.)
Female: 72.89 years (1996 est.); 72.56 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.27 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.47 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 83.5%
Male: 89.1%
Female: 78.1%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Malaysia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Malaysia
Former: Malayan Union

Government type: Constitutional monarchy
Note: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular Malaysian states_hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where governors are appointed by Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah_self-governing state, holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak_self-governing state, holds 27 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular_negeri) and 2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular_wilayah persekutuan; Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Dependent areas

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from U.K.)

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963

Legal system: Based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Paramount Ruler TUANKU JA'AFAR ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman (since 26 April 1994) and Deputy Paramount Ruler Sultan TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah (since 26 April 1994) were elected for five-year terms by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states
Head of government: Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981) was appointed by the paramount ruler; Deputy Prime Minister ANWAR bin Ibrahim (since 1 December 1993)
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the Paramount Ruler from members of parliament

Legislative branch: Bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) Senate (Dewan Negara):Consists of 58 members, elected members serve six-year terms; elections last held NA (next to be held NA; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(58 total, 32 appointed by the paramount ruler and 26 elected by the state legislatures) seats by party NA House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat):Consists of 192 members who are elected for five-year terms; elections last held NA April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000; results_National Front 63%, other 37%; seats_(192 total) National Front 162, DAP 9, PBS 8, PAS 7, Semangat'46 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Malaysia: Fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with whi.htmottom; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the U.S.

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Malaysia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The Malaysian economy, a mixture of private enterprise and a soundly managed public sector, has posted a remarkable record of 9% average annual growth in 1988-94. The official growth target for 1995 is 8.5%. This growth has resulted in a substantial reduction in poverty and a marked rise in real wages. Manufactured goods exports expanded rapidly, and foreign investors continued to commit large sums in the economy. The government is aware of the inflationary potential of this rapid development and is closely monitoring fiscal and monetary policies.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
8.2% (1996)
9.5% (1995)
8.7% (1994)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 8% of GDP (1993 est.) Peninsular Malaysia:Natural rubber, palm oil, rice Sabah:Mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice Sarawak:Rubber, timber, pepper; deficit of rice in all areas

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia:Rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber Sabah:Logging, petroleum production Sarawak:Agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 12% (1994; accounts for 25% of GDP (1995)

Labor force: 7.627 million (1993)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
2.8% (1995 est.)
2.9% (1994)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $20.2 billion (1995 est.); $18.7 billion (1994)
Expenditures: $19.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.8 billion (1995 est.); $19.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $4.8 billion (1994)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $72 billion (1995)
$56.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)

Commodities:
Electronic equipment
Petroleum and petroleum products
Palm oil
Wood and wood products
Rubber
Textiles

Partners:
Singapore 21%
U.S. 20%
Japan 12%
U.K. 4%
Germany 3%
Thailand 4% (1994)


Imports
Total value:
$72.2 billion (1995)
$55.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)

Commodities:
Machinery and equipment
Chemicals
Food
Petroleum products

Partners:
Japan 26%
U.S. 17%
Singapore 14%
Taiwan 5%
Germany 4%
U.K. 3%
South Korea 3% (1993)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$27.4 billion (1995 est.)
$35.5 billion (1994 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Ringgits (M$) per US$1_2.5567 (January 1996), 2.5044 (1995), 2.6243 (1994), 2.5741 (1993), 2.5474 (1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048 (1990)


Malaysia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 31 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,528 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Malaysia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 2,550,957 telephones (1992 est.); international service good
Local: NA
Intercity: good intercity service provided on Peninsular Malaysia mainly by microwave radio relay; adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; 2 domestic satellite links
International: submarine cables to India, Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations_2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Malaysia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $2.4 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1995; $2.1 billion, 2.9% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Malaysia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 105
With paved runways over 3047 m: 3
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 1
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 74

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 3
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 1
914 to 1523 m: 5 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 74

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)

Pipelines: Crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: Peninsular Malaysia:3,209 km Sabah:1,569 km Sarawak:2,518 km

Merchant marine
Total: 248 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,035,684 GRT/4,494,476 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 83, chemical tanker 13, container 31, liquefied gas tanker 12, livestock carrier 1, oil tanker 55, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 4 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Malaysia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the U.S., Western Europe, and the Third World despite severe penalties for drug trafficking


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