Statistical information Mali 1996Mali

Map of Mali | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mali in the World

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Mali - Introduction 1996
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Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held.


Mali - Geography 1996
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Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 1.24 million km²
Land: 1.22 million km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: Total 7,243 km, Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: Mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
Extremes highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

Natural resources:
Gold
Phosphates
Kaolin
Salt
Limestone
Uranium
Bauxite
Iron ore
Manganese
Tin
And copper deposits are known but not exploited

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 25%
Forests and woodland: 7%
Other: 66%

Irrigated land: 50 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Mali - People 1996
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Population:
9,653,261 (July 1996 est.)
9,375,132 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.95% (1996 est.)
2.89% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Malian(s)
Adjective: Malian

Ethnic groups:
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole)
Peul 17%
Voltaic 12%
Songhai 6%
Tuareg and Moor 10%
Other 5%


Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages

Religions:
Muslim 90%
Indigenous beliefs 9%
Christian 1%


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
48% (male 2,310,294; female 2,308,941) (July 1996 est.)
48% (male 2,242,373; female 2,240,565) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
49% (male 2,231,244; female 2,488,276) (July 1996 est.)
49% (male 2,165,043; female 2,416,952) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 149,370; female 165,136) (July 1996 est.)
3% (male 147,965; female 162,234) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.95% (1996 est.)
2.89% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
51.38 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
51.88 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
19.49 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
19.93 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-2.37 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-3 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Current issues Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts
International agreements: party to_Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity,Nuclear Test Ban
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:102.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
104.5 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 46.84 years 91,996 est.), 46.37 years (1995 est.)
Male: 45.12 years (1996 est.), 44.7 years (1995 est.)
Female: 48.6 years (1996 est.), 48.09 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
7.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)
7.33 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 6 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 31%
Male: 39.4%
Female: 23.1%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Mali - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mali
Conventional short form: Mali
Local long form: Republique de Mali
Local short form: Mali
Former: French Sudan

Government type: Republic

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular_region; Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou

Dependent areas

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)

Constitution: Adopted 12 January 1992

Legal system: Based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Alpha Oumar KONARE (since 8 June 1992); election last held in April 1992 (next to be held April 1997); Alpha KONARE was elected in runoff race against Montaga TALL
Head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahima Boubacar KEITA (since March 1994)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly:Elections last held on 8 March 1992 (next to be held February 1997; results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(116 total) Adema 76, CNID 9, US/RAD 8, Popular Movement for the Development of the Republic of West Africa 6, RDP 4, UDD 4, RDT 3, UFDP 3, PDP 2, UMDD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mali: Three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Mali - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The economy is beginning to turn around after contracting through 1992-93, largely because of enhanced exports and import substitute production in the wake of the 50% devaluation of 12 January 1994. Post-devaluation inflation peaked at 35% in 1994, and the government appears to be keeping on track with its IMF structural adjustment program.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate: 2.4% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 42.4% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops_millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock_cattle, sheep, goats

Industries:
Minor local consumer goods production and food processing
Construction
Phosphate and gold mining


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -1.4% (1992 est.), accounts for 13.0% of GDP

Labor force: 2.666 million (1986 est.)
By occupation Agriculture: 80%
By occupation Services: 19%
By occupation Industry and commerce: 1% (1981)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $376 million
Expenditures: $697 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports: total value. $415 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities:
Cotton
Livestock
Gold

Partners: Mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Imports: total value:$842 million (f.o.b., 1993)
Commodities:
Machinery and equipment
Foodstuffs
Construction materials
Petroleum
Textiles

Partners: Mostly franc zone and Western Europe

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$2.8 billion (1995 est.)
$2.6 billion (1991 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1_500.56 (January 1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990)
Note: Beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948


Mali - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 310 million kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 33 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Mali - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 11,000 telephones; domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service
Local: NA
Intercity: microwave radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
International: 2 INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Mali - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $66 million, 2.2% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Mali - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 24
2438 to 3047 m: 4
914 to 1523 m: 8 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 7
15-24 to 2437 m: 3

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Mali - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


Skytours


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