Statistical information Moldova 1996Moldova

Map of Moldova | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Moldova in the World
Moldova in the World

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Moldova - Introduction 1996
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Background: Formerly ruled by Romania Moldova became part of the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991 Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru (Dnister) River supporting the Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians) who have proclaimed a 'Transnistria' republic.


Moldova - Geography 1996
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Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 33,700 km²
Land: 33,700 km²
Comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Hawaii

Land boundaries: Total 1,389 km, Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Moderate winters, warm summers

Terrain: Rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Nistru River 2 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Balaneshty 430 m

Natural resources:
Lignite
Phosphorites
Gypsum

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 50%
Permanent crops: 13%
Permanent pastures: 9%
Forests and woodland: 0%
Other: 28%

Irrigated land: 2,920 km² (1990)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Moldova - People 1996
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Population:
4,463,847 (July 1996 est.)
4,489,657 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
0.18% (1996 est.)
0.36% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Moldovan(s)
Adjective: Moldovan

Ethnic groups:
Moldavian/Romanian 64.5%
Ukrainian 13.8%
Russian 13%
Gagauz 3.5%
Jewish 1.5%
Bulgarian 2%
Other 1.7% (1989 figures)

Note: Internal disputes with ethnic Russians and Ukrainians in the Dniester region and Gagauz Turks in the south

Languages: Moldovan (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 98.5%
Jewish 1.5%
Baptist (only about 1,000 members) (1991)

Note: The large majority of churchgoers are ethnic Moldavian

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
26% (male 592,245; female 573,452) (July 1996 est.)
27% (male 609,372; female 588,155) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
64% (male 1,381,017; female 1,496,428) (July 1996 est.)
64% (male 1,386,293; female 1,487,170) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
10% (male 155,908; female 264,797) (July 1996 est.)
9% (male 159,709; female 258,958) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
0.18% (1996 est.)
0.36% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
16.3 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
15.93 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
11.75 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
10.05 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-2.77 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-2.25 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Current issues Natural hazards: NA
International agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change; signed, but not ratified_Air Pollution
International agreements note: Landlocked

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.91 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:47.6 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
29.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 65.14 years (1996 est.), 68.22 years (1995 est.)
Male: 60.77 years (1996 est.), 64.81 years (1995 est.)
Female: 69.73 years (1996 est.), 71.8 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)
2.16 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1989)
Total population: 96%
Male: 99%
Female: 94%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Moldova - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
Conventional short form: Moldova
Local long form: Republica Moldova
Local short form: Moldova
Former: Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova; Moldavia

Government type: Republic

Capital: Chisinau

Administrative divisions: Previously divided into 40 rayons; new districts possible under new constitution in 1994

Dependent areas

Independence: 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August 1991

Constitution: New constitution adopted NA July 1994; replaces old Soviet constitution of 1979

Legal system: Based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; it is unclear if Moldova accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction but accepts many UN and OSCE documents

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Mircea SNEGUR (since 3 September 1990); election last held 8 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results_Mircea SNEGUR ran unopposed and won 98.17% of vote; note_President SNEGUR was named executive president by the Supreme Soviet on 3 September 1990 and was confirmed by popular election on 8 December 1991
Head of government: Prime Minister Andrei SANGHELI (since 1 July 1992; reappointed 5 April 1994 after elections for new legislature); First Deputy Prime Minister Ion GUTU (since NA)
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral Parliament:Elections last held 27 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(104 total) PDAM 56, Socialist/Yedinstvo Bloc 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, FPCDM 9; note_seats as of June-July 1995 were as follows:PDAM 45, PSM/UN 28, Peasants and Intellectuals Bloc 11, PRCM 11, FPCDM 9
Note: the comparative breakdown of seats by faction is approximate

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Moldova: Same color scheme as Romania_3 equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Moldova - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Moldova enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas. Energy shortages have contributed to sharp production declines since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Moldovan Government has been making steady progress on an ambitious economic reform agenda, and the IMF has called Moldova a model for the region. As part of its reform efforts, Chisinau has introduced a stable convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises and backed their steady privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. Chisinau appears strongly committed to continuing these reforms in 1996. Published estimates probably overstated the decline in output in 1991-94; the $2,310 per capita figure for GDP thus is a minimum estimate.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-3% (1995 est.)
-30% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for about 40% of GDP; Moldova's principal economic activity; products are vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, meat, milk, tobacco

Industries:
Key products are canned food
Agricultural machinery
Foundry equipment
Refrigerators and freezers
Washing machines
Hosiery
Refined sugar
Vegetable oil
Shoes
Textiles


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -6% (1995 est.), -30% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 2.03 million (January 1994)
By occupation Agriculture: 34.4%
By occupation Industry: 20.1%
By occupation Other: 45.5% (1985 figures)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
1.2% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (December 1995)
1% (includes only officially registered unemployed; large numbers of underemployed workers) (1994)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: NA
Expenditures: NA, including capital expenditures of NA
Note: budget deficit for 1995 approximately 5% of GDP; 1993 approximately 6% of GDP

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $720 million (1995)
$144 million to outside the FSU countries (1994); over 70% of exports go to FSU countries

Commodities:
Foodstuffs
Wine
Tobacco
Textiles and footwear
Machinery
Chemicals (1991)

Partners:
Russia
Kazakhstan
Ukraine
Romania
Germany


Imports
Total value:
$822 million (1995)
$174 million from outside the FSU countries (1994); over 70% of imports are from FSU countries

Commodities:
Oil
Gas
Coal
Steel
Machinery
Foodstuffs
Automobiles
And other consumer durables

Partners:
Russia
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Romania
Germany


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$550 million (of which $250 million to Russia) (1995)
$300 million (as of 11 December 1994)


Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Lei per US$1_4.5460 (January 1996), 4.4990 (1995), 4.2700 (1994), 3.6400 (1993), 0.4145 (1992), 0.0017 (1991)


Moldova - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 8.2 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,830 kWh (1994)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Moldova - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 577,000 telephones; 134 telephones/1000 persons; telecommunication system not well developed; 215,000 unsatisfied requests for telephone service (1991)
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: international connections to the other former Soviet republics by land line and microwave radio relay through Ukraine, and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; 1 EUTELSAT and 1 INTELSAT earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Moldova - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Moldova - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 26
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways under 914 m: 3
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 5
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
Under 914 m: 3

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 3
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 8 (1994 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: Natural gas 310 km (1992)

Railways

Roadways

Waterways

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals


Moldova - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: Illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis; mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe


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