Statistical information Mongolia 1996Mongolia

Map of Mongolia | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mongolia - Introduction 1996
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Background: Long a province of China Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996 the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election and has attempted to establish a number of reforms to modernize the economy. However many former communists retain key posts.

Mongolia - Geography 1996
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Location: Northern Asia, north of China

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 1.565 million km²
Land: 1.565 million km²
Comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: Total 8,114 km, China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: None; landlocked

Climate: Desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

Terrain: Vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Extremes lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
Extremes highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil 4,374 m

Natural resources:

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 1%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 79%
Forests and woodland: 10%
Other: 10%

Irrigated land: 770 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Mongolia - People 1996
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2,496,617 (July 1996 est.)
2,493,615 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.69% (1996 est.)
2.58% (1995 est.)

Noun: Mongolian(s)
Adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups:
Mongol 90%
Kazakh 4%
Chinese 2%
Russian 2%
Other 2%

Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese

Religions: Predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
Note: Previously limited religious activity because of Communist regime

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
38% (male 486,321; female 471,931) (July 1996 est.)
40% (male 511,464; female 495,919) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
58% (male 722,485; female 723,065) (July 1996 est.)
56% (male 693,776; female 693,037) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over: 4% (male 39,704; female 53,111) (July 1996 est.) 4% (male 44,428; female 54,991) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.69% (1996 est.)
2.58% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
25.55 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
32.65 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
8.65 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.82 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification
Current issues Natural hazards: duststorms can occur in the spring
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified_Desertification, Law of the sea
International agreements note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
All ages:
1 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:69.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
41.8 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 60.75 yeaqrs (1996 est.); 66.54 years (1995 est.)
Male: 58.8 years (1996 est.); 64.28 years (1995 est.)
Female: 62.8 years (1996 est.); 68.92 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)
4.26 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1988 est.)
Total population: 82.9%
Male: 88.6%
Female: 77.2%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mongolia - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: Mongolia
Local long form: none
Local short form: Mongol Uls
Former: Outer Mongolia

Government type: Republic

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular_aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular_hot; Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Dependent areas

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)

National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)

Constitution: Adopted 13 January 1992

Legal system: Blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990) was nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected in general presidential elections for a four-year term; election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results_Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of the vote, other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
Head of government: Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH (since NA October 1992) and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA September 1990) were appointed by the State Great Hural
Cabinet: Cabinet; appointed by the Great Hural

Legislative branch: Unicameral State Great Hural:Elections held for the first time 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA); results_percent of vote by party NA; seats_(76 total) MPRP 71, United Party of Mongolia 4, MSDP 1
Note: The People's Small Hural no longer exists

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval of the Great Hural

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mongolia: Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo"_a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mongolia - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors. The Mongolian leadership has been gradually making the transition from Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through privatization and price reform and has been soliciting support from international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy, however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid. The country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships, with one-fourth of the population below the poverty line.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
6% (1995 est.)
2.5% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for about 28% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (primarily sheep and goats, but also cattle, camels, and horses; crops_wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Processing of animal products
Building materials
Food and beverage
Mining (particularly coal)

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate -15% (1992 est.), accounts for 35% of GDP

Labor force: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.)
By occupation: Primarily herding/agricultural
By occupation note: Over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $1.5 billion
Expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $400 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$360 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Animal products
Other nonferrous metals

Former CMEA countries 62%
China 17%
EU 8% (1992)

Total value:
$223 million (f.o.b., 1994)
$361 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)

Machinery and equipment
Food products
Industrial consumer goods
Building materials

Former USSR Countries 75%
Austria 5%
China 5% (1991)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $473.7 million (1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Tughriks (Tug) per US$1_465.39 (October 1995), 415.34 (January 1995), 412.72 (1994), 42.56 (1992), 9.52 (1991), 5.63 (1990)
Note: The exchange rate 40 tughriks = 1US$ was introduced in June 1991 and was in force to the end of 1992; since 27 May 1993 the exchange rate is the midpoint of the average buying and selling rates that are freely determined on the basis of market transactions between commercial banks and the nonbank public

Mongolia - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 3.1 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 1,267 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mongolia - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 89,000 telephones (1995 est.)
Domestic: NA
International: satellite earth station_1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mongolia - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $22.8 million, 1% of GDP (1992)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mongolia - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 34
2438 to 3047 m: 7
Under 914 m: 1
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 3
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 5
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 10
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 3
With unpaved runways under 914 m: 5

Airports with paved runways

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 5
15-24 to 2437 m: 10
914 to 1523 m: 3
Under 914 m: 5





Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)

Merchant marine

Ports and terminals

Mongolia - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs

Undercover Tourist

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