Statistical information Mozambique 1996Mozambique

Map of Mozambique | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
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Mozambique in the World
Mozambique in the World


Mozambique - Introduction 1996
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Background: Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites economic dependence on South Africa a severe drought and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989 and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992.

Mozambique - Geography 1996
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Location: Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 801,590 km²
Land: 784,090 km²
Comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: Total 4,571 km, Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical to subtropical

Terrain: Mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Extremes lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Natural resources:

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 4%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 56%
Forests and woodland: 20%
Other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,150 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Mozambique - People 1996
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17,877,927 (July 1996 est.)
18,115,250 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
2.65% (1996 est.)
2.87% (1995 est.)

Noun: Mozambican(s)
Adjective: Mozambican

Ethnic groups:
Indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others)
Europeans 0.06%
Euro-Africans 0.2%
Indians 0.08%

LanguagesPortuguese (official), indigenous dialects

Indigenous beliefs 60%
Christian 30%
Muslim 10%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
46% (male 4,141,915; female 4,115,191) (July 1996 est.)
45% (male 4,078,429; female 4,069,117) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
51% (male 4,324,102; female 4,868,518) (July 1996 est.)
53% (male 4,630,193; female 4,882,292) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
3% (male 184,606; female 243,595) (July 1996 est.)
2% (male 195,162; female 260,057) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
2.65% (1996 est.)
2.87% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
45.51 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
44.6 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
18.97 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
15.94 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
Note: By the end of 1994, an estimated 1.6 million Mozambican refugees, who fled to Malawi, Zimbabwa, and South Africa in earlier years from the civil war, had returned; an estimated 100,000 refugees remain to be repatriated from those countries

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: civil strife and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters
Current issues Natural hazards: severe droughts and floods occur in central and southern provinces; devastating cyclones
International agreements: party to_Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Desertification

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:125.6 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
126 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 44.43 years (1996 est.), 48.95 years (1995 est.)
Male: 43.21 (1996 est.), 47.04 years (1995 est.)
Female: 45.5 years (1996 est.), 50.92 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
6.23 children born/woman (1996 est.)
6.19 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 40.1%
Male: 57.7%
Female: 23.3%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Mozambique - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
Conventional short form: Mozambique
Local long form: Republica Popular de Mocambique
Local short form: Mocambique

Government type: Republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular_provincia; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Dependent areas

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Constitution: 30 November 1990

Legal system: Based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986)
Head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since December 1994)
Cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: Unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia Da Republica):The members are elected by direct, universal, adult suffrage on a secret ballot for a term of five years; election last held 27-29 October 1994 (next to be held NA October 1999); results_percent vote by party NA, seats (250 total) FRELIMO won a slim majority
Note: the presidential and legislative elections took place as called for in the 1992 peace accords; RENAMO participated in the elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the president and judges elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Mozambique: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Mozambique - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic potential of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources. Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined throughout the first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government administrative control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign aid, attracted by an economic reform policy, resulted in successive years of economic growth in the late 1980s, but aid has declined steadily since 1989. Agricultural output is at only 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry operates at only 20%-40% of capacity. The economy depends heavily on foreign assistance to keep afloat. Peace accords between civil warring factions, signed in October 1992, improved chances of foreign investment, aided IMF-supported economic reforms, and supported continued economic recovery. Elections held in 1994 diverted government attention from the economy, resulting in slippage and delays in the economic reform program. Nonetheless, growth continued in 1994-95, and the economy should move forward in the late 1990s, given continued foreign help in meeting debt obligations. One key event in 1995 was the conclusion of negotiations with Enron of Houston, Texas, for a $700 million project to exploit the Pande natural gas fields.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
-2.5% (1995 est.)
5.8% (1994 est.)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 50% of GDP and about 90% of exports; cash crops_cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other crops_cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food

Chemicals (fertilizer
Petroleum products
Nonmetallic mineral products (cement

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 5.8% (1993 est.), 5% (1989 est.)

Labor force: NA
By occupation: 90% engaged in agriculture
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 50% (1989 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $252 million
Expenditures: $607 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $170 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$150 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Shrimp 40%

South Africa

Imports: total value:$1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
Farm equipment

South Africa

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $5 billion (1992 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates

Mozambique - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 1.7 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 58 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Mozambique - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 59,000 (1983 est.) telephones; fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and radio relay
Domestic: microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
International: 5 INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Mozambique - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $84 million, 5.3% of GDP (1994), $110 million, 7.3% of GDP (1993)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Mozambique - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 131
With paved runways over 3047 m: 1
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 4
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 32 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 67

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 1
2438 to 3047 m: 4
15-24 to 2437 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 32 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 67

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Crude oil (not operating) 306 km; petroleum products 289 km



Waterways: About 3,750 km of navigable routes

Merchant marine: total:4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,694 GRT/9,724 DWT (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Mozambique - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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