Statistical information Myanmar 1996Myanmar

Map of Myanmar | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Energy | Communication
Military | Transportation | Transnational Issues | Year:  | More stats

Myanmar in the World
Myanmar in the World


Myanmar - Introduction 1996
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Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the main opposition party winning a decisive victory the military junta ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi was under house arrest from 1989 to 1995; her supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.

Myanmar - Geography 1996
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Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Total: 678,500 km²
Land: 657,740 km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: Total 5,876 km, Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims
Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September; less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: Central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Extremes lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
Extremes highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:
Some marble
Precious stones
Natural gas

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 15%
Permanent crops: 1%
Permanent pastures: 1%
Forests and woodland: 49%
Other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10,180 km² (1989)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards


Myanmar - People 1996
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45,975,625 (July 1996 est.)
45,103,809 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.84% (1996 est.)
1.84% (1995 est.)

Noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
Adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:
Burman 68%
Shan 9%
Karen 7%
Rakhine 4%
Chinese 3%
Mon 2%
Indian 2%
Other 5%

Languages: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Buddhist 89%
Christian 4% (Baptist 3%
Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%
Animist beliefs 1%
Other 2%

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
37% (male 8,637,102; female 8,308,282) (July 1996 est.)
36% (male 8,285,459; female 7,963,544) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
59% (male 13,577,232; female 13,571,312) (July 1996 est.)
60% (male 13,404,987; female 13,478,211) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
4% (male 853,403; female 1,028,294) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 890,686; female 1,080,922) (July 1995 est.)

Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.84% (1996 est.)
1.84% (1995 est.)

Birth rate:
30.01 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
28.02 births/1000 population (1995 est.)

Death rate:
11.66 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
9.63 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)

Population distribution


Major urban areas

Current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease
Current issues Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts
International agreements: party to_Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified_Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94
International agreements note: Strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:80.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
61.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)

Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 56.14 years (1996 est.); 60.47 years (1995 est.)
Male: 57.92 years (1996 est.); 58.38 years (1995 est.)
Female: 57.92 years (1996 est.); 62.69 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3.58 children born/woman (1995 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access


Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 83.1%
Male: 88.7%
Female: 77.7%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment

Myanmar - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Union of Myanmar (Union of Burma)
Conventional short form: Myanmar (Burma)
Local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
Local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
Former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Government type: Military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular_yin) and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular_pyine; Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Dependent areas

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988; National Convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been approved

Legal system: Has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Chief of state and head of government:Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992) State Law and Order Restoration Council:Military junta which assumed power 18 September 1988

Legislative branch: People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw):Election last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened; results_NLD 80%; seats_(485 total) NLD 396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: Limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Myanmar: Red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage

Myanmar - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Burma has a mixed economy with about 75% private activity, mainly in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with about 25% state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy industry, and foreign trade. Government policy in the last seven years, 1989-95, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume of black market trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and living standards.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
6.8% (1995 est.)
6.4% (1994)

Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 60% of GDP and 62.5% of employment (including fishing, animal husbandry, and forestry; self-sufficient in food; principal crops_paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees; rice and timber account for 55% of export revenues

Agricultural processing
Textiles and footwear
Wood and wood products
Petroleum refining
Mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron
Construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 4.9% (FY92/93 est.), accounts for 10% of GDP

Labor force: 16.007 million (1992)
By occupation Agriculture: 65.2%
By occupation Industry: 14.3%
By occupation Trade: 10.1%
By occupation Government: 6.3%
By occupation Other: 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: NA

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Revenues: $5.3 billion (1995 est.); $4.4 billion (FY93/94 est.)
Expenditures: $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.); $6.7 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY93/94 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues


Fiscal year: 1 April_31 March

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

total value. $879 million (FY94/95 est.)
$674 million (FY93/94 est.)

Pulses and beans

Hong Kong

Total value:
$1.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)
$1.2 billion (FY93/94 est.)

Transport equipment
Construction materials
Food products
Consumer goods


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external:
$5.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)
$5.4 billion (FY93/94 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Kyats (K) per US$1_5.8475 (January 1996), 5.9170 (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992), 6.2837 (1991), 6.3386 (1990; unofficial_120

Myanmar - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 2.6 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 55 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources


Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita

Myanmar - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 122,195 telephones (1993 est.); meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government; international service is good
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: 1 INTELSAT (Indian Ocean) earth station

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions

Myanmar - Military 1996
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Military expenditures

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups

Myanmar - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 74
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 17 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 28

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 17 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 28

Airports with unpaved runways


Pipelines: Crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km



Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Merchant marine
Total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 444,957 GRT/610,420 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 15, chemical tanker 5, container 1, oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals

Myanmar - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: World's largest illicit producer of opium (2,340 metric tons in 1995) and source for over 60% of US heroin imports; minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; Rangoon's antinarcotic programs hindered by lack of resources, government commitment; growing role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption


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