Statistical information New Zealand 1996New%20Zealand

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New Zealand - Introduction 1996
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Background: The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand withdrew from a number of defense alliances during the 1970s and 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding native Maori grievances.


New Zealand - Geography 1996
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Location: Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 268,680 km²
Land: 268,670 km²
Comparative: about the size of Colorado
Comparative note: Includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: Predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m

Natural resources:
Natural gas
Iron ore
Sand
Coal
Timber
Hydropower
Gold
Limestone

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 2%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 53%
Forests and woodland: 38%
Other: 7%

Irrigated land: 2,800 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


New Zealand - People 1996
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Population:
3,547,983 (July 1996 est.)
3,407,277 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.12% (1996 est.)
0.52% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: New Zealander(s)
Adjective: New Zealand

Ethnic groups:
European 88%
Maori 8.9%
Pacific Islander 2.9%
Other 0.2%


LanguagesEnglish (official), Maori

Religions:
Anglican 24%
Presbyterian 18%
Roman Catholic 15%
Methodist 5%
Baptist 2%
Other Protestant 3%
Unspecified or none 33% (1986)


Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
23% (male 420,900; female 400,159) (July 1996 est.)
23% (male 401,285; female 381,027) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
65% (male 1,161,522; female 1,154,536) (July 1996 est.)
65% (male 1,111,079; female 1,109,402) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
12% (male 177,182; female 233,684) (July 1996 est.)
12% (male 170,145; female 234,339) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.12% (1996 est.)
0.52% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
15.78 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
15.14 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
7.72 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
8.03 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
3.17 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
-1.87 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside
Current issues Natural hazards: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe
International agreements: party to_Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified_Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
International agreements note: About 80% of the population lives in cities

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
All ages:
0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:6.7 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
8.6 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 77.01 years (1996 est.), 76.65 years (1995 est.)
Male: 73.96 years (1996 est.), 73.08 years (1995 est.)
Female: 80.21 years (1996 est.), 80.42 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.01 children born/woman (1996 est.)
1.99 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1980 est.)
Total population: 99%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


New Zealand - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: none
Conventional short form: New Zealand Abbreviation:NZ

Government type: Parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and 3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller, Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna, Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay, Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote, Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood, Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu, Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri, Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako, Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga, Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan, Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent, Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate, Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa, Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland, Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville
Note: There may be a new administrative structure of 16 regions (Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wanganui-Manawatu, Wellington, West Coast) that are subdivided into 57 districts and 16 cities* (Ashburton, Auckland*, Banks Peninsula, Buller, Carterton, Central Hawke's Bay, Central Otago, Christchurch*, Clutha, Dunedin*, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne, Gore, Grey, Hamilton*, Hastings, Hauraki, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt*, Invercargill*, Kaikoura, Kaipara, Kapiti Coast, Kawerau, Mackenzie, Manawatu, Manukau*, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata Piako, Napier*, Nelson*, New Plymouth, North Shore*, Opotiki, Otorohanga, Palmerston North*, Papakura*, Porirua*, Queenstown Lakes, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua, Ruapehu, Selwyn, Southland, South Taranaki, South Waikato, South Wairarapa, Stratford, Tararua, Tasman, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames Coromandel, Timaru, Upper Hutt*, Waikato, Waimakariri, Waimate, Waipa, Wairoa, Waitakere*, Waitaki, Waitomo, Wanganui, Wellington*, Western Bay of Plenty, Westland, Whakatane, Whangarei) Dependent Areas:Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Dependent areas

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from U.K.)

National holiday: Waitangi Day, 6 February (1840) (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty)

Constitution: No formal, written constitution; consists of various documents, including certain acts of the U.K. and New Zealand Parliaments; Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has not been enacted

Legal system: Based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General Sir Michael HARDIE BOYS (since 21 March 1996)
Head of government: Prime Minister James BOLGER (since 29 October 1990); Deputy Prime Minister Donald McKINNON (since 2 November 1990)
Cabinet: Executive Council; appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: Unicameral House of Representatives:(commonly called Parliament) elections last held 6 November 1993 (next to be held NA November 1996; results_NP 35.2%, NZLP 34.7%, Alliance 18.3%, New Zealand First 8.3%; seats_(99 total) NP 50, NZLP 45, Alliance 2, New Zealand First Party 2

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: ANZUS (U.S. suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM (guest), OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of New%20Zealand: Blue with the flag of the U.K. in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


New Zealand - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market toward a more industrialized, open, free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, broaden and deepen the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The initial results were mixed:inflation is down from double-digit levels, but growth was sluggish in 1988-91. In 1992-93, growth picked up to 3% annually, a sign that the new economic approach was beginning to pay off. Business confidence strengthened in 1994, and export demand picked up in the Asia-Pacific region, resulting in 6.2% growth. Growth continued strong in 1995, and inflation remains among the lowest in the industrial world. The government announced its first budget surplus in 16 years in FY94/95 and forecasts a surplus of $5.0 billion in FY97/98. The government intends to use the surplus to reduce the debt, increase social spending, and cut taxes_by $1.35 billion over two years beginning in 1996. Per capita GDP now is up to the levels of the big West European economies.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
5.5% (1995 est.)
6.2% (1994)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 7.3% of GDP and 10.4% of the work force; livestock predominates_wool, meat, dairy products all export earners; crops_wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a record 503,000 metric tons in 1988

Industries:
Food processing
Wood and paper products
Textiles
Machinery
Transportation equipment
Banking and insurance
Tourism
Mining


Industrial production growth rate: Growth rate 1.9% (1990; accounts for 25.9% of GDP

Labor force: 1,634,500 (September 1995)
By occupation Services: 64.6%
By occupation Industry: 25.0%
By occupation Agriculture: 10.4% (1994)
Labor force

Unemployment rate:
6.1% (October 1995)
7.5% (December 1994)


Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $22.18 billion (FY95/96 est.), $18.94 billion (FY94/95)
Expenditures: $20.28 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY95/96 est.), $18.82 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (FY94/95)
Note: Surplus $120 million (FY94/95)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: 1 July_30 June

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $13.41 billion (1995)
$11.2 billion (1994)

Commodities:
Wool
Lamb
Mutton
Beef
Fish
Cheese
Chemicals
Forestry products
Fruits and vegetables
Manufactures

Partners:
Australia 20%
Japan 15%
U.S. 12%
U.K. 6%


Imports
Total value:
$13.62 billion (1995)
$10.4 billion (1994)

Commodities:
Machinery and equipment
Vehicles and aircraft
Petroleum
Consumer goods

Partners:
Australia 21%
U.S. 18%
Japan 16%
U.K. 6%


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $38.5 billion (September 1994)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates


New Zealand - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 30.5 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 8,401 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


New Zealand - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 1.7 million telephones (1986 est.); excellent international and domestic systems
Local: NA
Intercity: NA
International: submarine cables extend to Australia and Fiji; 2 INTELSAT (Pacific Ocean) earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


New Zealand - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $556 million, 1% of GDP (FY93/94), $792 million, 2% of GDP (FY90/91)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


New Zealand - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 113
With paved runways over 3047 m: 2
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 2
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 21 (1995 est.)
With paved runways under 914 m: 50

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 2
914 to 1523 m: 21 (1995 est.)
Under 914 m: 50

Airports with unpaved runways

Heliports

Pipelines: Petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; condensate (liquified petroleum gas_LPG) 150 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Merchant marine
Total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 162,220 GRT/213,749 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 1, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 3, railcar carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


New Zealand - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs


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