Statistical information Peru 1996Peru

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Peru - Introduction 1996
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Background: After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.


Peru - Geography 1996
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Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

Map reference

Area
Total: 1,285,220 km²
Land: 1.28 million km²
Comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: Total 6,940 km, Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: Varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: Western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation
Extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Extremes highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources:
Copper
Silver
Gold
Petroleum
Timber
Fish
Iron ore
Coal
Phosphate
Potash

Land use

Land use
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 55%
Other: 21%

Irrigated land: 12,500 km² (1989 est.)

Major rivers

Major watersheds area km²

Total water withdrawal

Total renewable water resources

Natural hazards

Geography


Peru - People 1996
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Population:
24,523,408 (July 1996 est.)
24,087,372 (July 1995 est.)

Growth rate:
1.74% (1996 est.)
1.8% (1995 est.)


Nationality
Noun: Peruvian(s)
Adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups:
Indian 45%
Mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 37%
White 15%
Black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%


Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara

Religions: Roman Catholic

Demographic profile
Age structure

Age structure
0-14 years:
35% (male 4,360,379; female 4,214,970) (July 1996 est.)
35% (male 4,296,293; female 4,152,520) (July 1995 est.)

15-64 years:
61% (male 7,480,747; female 7,375,825) (July 1996 est.)
61% (male 7,378,227; female 7,280,287) (July 1995 est.)

65 years and over:
4% (male 497,775; female 593,712) (July 1996 est.)
4% (male 444,889; female 535,156) (July 1995 est.)


Dependency ratios

Median age

Population growth rate:
1.74% (1996 est.)
1.8% (1995 est.)


Birth rate:
24.33 births/1000 population (1996 est.)
24.88 births/1000 population (1995 est.)


Death rate:
6.13 deaths/1000 population (1996 est.)
6.84 deaths/1000 population (1995 est.)


Net migration rate:
-0.76 migrant(s)/1000 population (1996 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1000 population (1995 est.)


Population distribution

Urbanization

Major urban areas

Environment
Current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Current issues Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
International agreements: party to_Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
International agreements note: Shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia

Air pollutants

Sex ratio
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
All ages:
1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.) Infant Mortality Rate:52.2 deaths/1000 live births (1996 est.)
52.1 deaths/1000 live births (1995 est.)


Mothers mean age at first birth

Maternal mortality ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth
Total population: 69.13 years (1996 est.); 66.07 years (1995 est.)
Male: 66.97 years (1996 est.); 63.86 years (1995 est.)
Female: 71.39 years (1996 est); 68.38 years (1995 est.)

Total fertility rate:
3.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)
3 children born/woman (1995 est.)


Contraceptive prevalence rate

Drinking water source

Current health expenditure

Physicians density

Hospital bed density

Sanitation facility access

Hiv/Aids

Major infectious diseases

Obesity adult prevalence rate

Alcohol consumption

Tobacco use

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

Education expenditures

Literacy
Definition: age 15 and over that can read and write (1995 est.)
Total population: 88.7%
Male: 94.5%
Female: 83%

School life expectancy primary to tertiary education

Youth unemployment


Peru - Government 1996
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Country name
Conventional long form: Republic of Peru
Conventional short form: Peru
Local long form: Republica del Peru
Local short form: Peru

Government type: Republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular_departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Note: The 1979 Constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular_region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments_Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 Constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 Constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments.

Dependent areas

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Legal system: Based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

International law organization participation

Citizenship

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
Chief of state and head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results_Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%
Cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president
Note: Prime Minister Alberto PANDOLFI Arbulu (since 3 April 1996) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

Legislative branch: Unicameral Congress:Elections last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000; results_C90/NM 52.1% of the total vote, UPP 14%, eleven other parties 33.9%; seats_(120 total, when installed on 28 July 1995) C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, (CODE)-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3, Renovacion 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, MIA 1, FRENATRACA 1, (FREPAP) 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Political parties and leaders

International organization participation: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation

Flag descriptionflag of Peru: Three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

National symbols

National anthem

National heritage


Peru - Economy 1996
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Economy overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. In the 1980s, the economy suffered from hyperinflation, declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the FUJIMORI government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but the slide came to a halt late that year, and in 1991 output rose 2.4%. After a burst of inflation as the austerity program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly price increases eased to the single-digit level and by December 1991 dropped to the lowest increase since mid-1987. Lima obtained a financial rescue package from multilateral lenders in September 1991, although it faced $14 billion in arrears on its external debt. By working with the IMF and World Bank on new financial conditions and arrangements, the government succeeded in ending its arrears by March 1993. In 1992, GDP fell by 2.8%, in part because a warmer-than-usual El Nino current resulted in a 30% drop in the fish catch, but the economy rebounded as strong foreign investment helped push growth to 6% in 1993, about 13% in 1994, and 6.8% in 1995.

Real gdp purchasing power parity

Real gdp growth rate:
6.8% (1995 est.)
8.6% (1994 est.)


Real gdp per capita ppp

Gross national saving
Gdp composition by sector of origin

Gdp composition by end use

Gdp composition by sector of origin

Agriculture products: Accounts for 12% of GDP, about 35% of labor force; commercial crops_coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops_rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products_poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 6.9 million metric tons (1990)

Industries:
Mining of metals
Petroleum
Fishing
Textiles
Clothing
Food processing
Cement
Auto assembly
Steel
Shipbuilding
Metal fabrication


Industrial production growth rate: NA

Labor force: 8 million (1992)
By occupation government and other services: 44%
By occupation agriculture: 37%
By occupation industry: 19% (1988 est.)
Labor force

Unemployment rate: 15%; extensive underemployment (1992 est.)

Youth unemployment

Population below poverty line

Gini index

Household income or consumption by percentage share

Distribution of family income gini index

Budget
Revenues: $8.5 billion (1996 est.); $2 billion (1992 est.)
Expenditures: $9.3 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.); $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $300 million (1992 est.)

Public debt

Taxes and other revenues

Revenue

Fiscal year: Calendar year

Current account balance

Inflation rate consumer prices

Central bank discount rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate

Stock of narrow money

Stock of broad money

Stock of domestic credit

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

Exports:
total value. $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Copper
Zinc
Fishmeal
Crude petroleum and byproducts
Lead
Refined silver
Coffee
Cotton

Partners:
U.S. 19%
Japan 9%
Italy
Germany


Imports
Total value:
$7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
$5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Commodities:
Machinery
Transport equipment
Foodstuffs
Petroleum
Iron and steel
Chemicals
Pharmaceuticals

Partners:
U.S. 21%
Colombia
Argentina
Japan
Germany
Brazil


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

Debt external: $22.4 billion (1994 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment at home

Stock of direct foreign investment abroad

Exchange rates: Nuevo sol (S/.) per US$1_2.350 (January 1996), 2.253 (1995), 2.195 (1994), 1.988 (1993), 1.246 (1992), 0.773 (1991), 0.187 (1990)


Peru - Energy 1996
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Electricity access

Electricity production: 11.2 billion kWh

Electricity consumption
Per capita: 448 kWh (1993)

Electricity exports

Electricity imports

Electricity installed generating capacity

Electricity transmission distribution losses

Electricity generation sources

Petroleum

Refined petroleum

Natural gas

Carbon dioxide emissions

Energy consumption per capita


Peru - Communication 1996
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Telephones fixed lines

Telephones mobile cellular

Telephone system: 779,306 telephones (1990 est.); fairly adequate for most requirements
Local: NA
Intercity: nationwide microwave radio relay system and 12 domestic satellite links
International: 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Broadcast media

Internet country code

Internet users

Broadband fixed subscriptions


Peru - Military 1996
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Military expenditures
Dollar figure: $998 million, 1.6% of GDP (1996; $810 million, about 2.7% of GDP (1994)

Military and security forces

Military service age and obligation

Terrorist groups


Peru - Transportation 1996
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National air transport system

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports: 230
With paved runways over 3047 m: 5
With paved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 15
With paved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 12
With paved runways 914 to 1523 m: 6
With paved runways under 914 m: 96
With paved runways With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1
With unpaved runways 2438 to 3047 m: 2
With unpaved runways 15-24 to 2437 m: 22
With unpaved runways 914 to 1523 m: 71 (1995 est.)

Airports with paved runways
Over 3047 m: 5
2438 to 3047 m: 15
15-24 to 2437 m: 12
914 to 1523 m: 6
Under 914 m: 96
With unpaved runways over 3047 m: 1

Airports with unpaved runways
2438 to 3047 m: 2
15-24 to 2437 m: 22
914 to 1523 m: 71 (1995 est.)

Heliports

Pipelines: Crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km

Railways

Roadways

Waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca

Merchant marine
Total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,584 GRT/144,030 DWT
Ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 7 (1995 est.)

Ports and terminals


Peru - Transnational issues 1996
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Disputes international

Refugees and internally displaced persons

Illicit drugs: World's largest coca leaf producer with about 108,600 hectares under cultivation in 1994; source of supply for most of the world's coca paste and cocaine base; at least 85% of coca cultivation is for illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing


Qatar Airways


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